• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Hitler and Mussolini

Extracts from this document...


If power is defined as political or social authority or control, particularly that exercised by a government, then Hitler and Mussolini had similarities in their rise to power (Hitler in 1934 and Mussolini 1924) with the way in which they were both helped and could therefore exploit the circumstances of their socio-economic problems caused by the current governments equally well, as well as their methods of violence and intimidation to deter and obstruct political opposition (used to a larger extent by Mussolini), but however had differences with their approaches towards gaining support from the church (more important for Mussolini), as well as gaining support from industrialists and the petty bourgeoisie (more important for Hitler). The circumstances of the socio-economic problems caused by the governments of both Hitler and Mussolini made it very easy for them to rise to power, as they created widespread dissatisfaction with their current governments and provided a more attractive alternative to that government and thus, led the civilians to be more inclined to accept one party leadership. The dominant socio-economic problem caused by the Weimar republic was the Welfare state. As German economic historian 'Borchhardt' argues "The state was living beyond its means, with both subsidies and redistribution of wealth harmful to economic growth". This is because the regime suffered from exaggerated expectations. ...read more.


The Justice and Liberty leader was killed in 1973 on government instruction, and sometimes people would be assaulted by OVRA or militia simply to remind them that its best to conform. All these acts of violence and aggression made it nearly impossible for any form of opposition to get in his way of power as it intimidated a lot of opponents. In order to deter political opposition, Mussolini implemented many laws. After the Matteoti crisis, press censorship and meetings of political parties were banned in July 1924. In July 1925, the 'leggi fascistissime' was passed, banning opposition parties and Free trade Unions. All these laws ensured that opposition was prevented. The fascists also wanted to present themselves as defenders of law and order, thus gaining support from various social groups. In July 1922, he used violence to do this by limiting the strikes' effect. This impressed the conservative middle classes and convinced them that fascism could be trusted. Historian Mack Smith states "liberals allowed themselves to be convinced that only a Fascist presence in the government could crush the socialists". This is further reinforced by the time a social deputy was beaten up on the floor of the chamber. This use of violence was successful because the liberals did not take a stand against the fascists. ...read more.


However, they also had a 1929 leaflet directed to small producers, traders etc... promising to get rid of "the treacherous leaders of Marxism". Using contradictory messages in their propaganda helped the Nazis gain support of these two groups and more. However, historian Brustein argues that a lot of Germans voted Nazi for their rational economic reasons. Evidence of this is shown between 1930-33 when the Nazis put forward a series of economic policies, offering a third way between Marxism and Laissez-faire capitalism. They advocated public investment in industry to boost the economy, they employed financial controls to protect those in debt and they promised Economic Autarky to put the Germans interests above those of foreigners. This can be further substantiated by the fact that 65% of Nazi party members surveyed stated that their reason for joining the Nazi party was anti-Marxism. Therefore, these policies and promises helped gain the support of both industrialists and the petty bourgeoisie. In conclusion, Mussolini and Hitler had very similar ways of rising to power. The conditions that they exploited at their time of rising to power were similar as well as their methods of violence. However, the way in which they gained support from various power groups was slightly different. I also believe that their rise in power was more intentionalist than structuralist, as it depended greatly on their manipulation skills and methods. Words: 1738 Compare and Contrast the rise to power of Hitler and Mussolini 5/8/11 3:19 PM 5/8/11 3:19 PM 5/8/11 3:19 PM ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. How Successful was Mussolini in solving the problems he faced?

    Beggars disappeared from the streets whenever foreign diplomats were expected, and the trains ran on time. Mussolini was admired and even revered by many during the years before the war, but dissent, though hidden, was not turned into consent or assent, and he and Claretta eventually paid the price.

  2. Italian Unification Revision Notes. Italian Politics in 1815

    When the King sensibly refused, Cavour resigned. Central Italy � That Napoleon's III's betrayal at Villafranca did not end the process of unification was largely due to work of nationalists in central Italy. The provisional governments set up in Tuscany, Parma, Modena and the Romagna, all strongly influenced by the National Society, arranged for the election of assemblies.

  1. How and why did Mussolini set up a dictatorial regime in 1922-1927?

    So, Mussolini appointed himself thus increasing the Fascist character of the new government. Mussolini wisely, appointed a general and an admiral to the two service ministries to reassure the armed forces that they were not to be replaced by Fascist militia.

  2. Assess the relative importance of Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi to the unification of Italy ...

    other Italian patriots; he successfully protected the city against the French army for about thirty days but soon he was forced to make terms with the French. He and his troops were allowed to leave Rome but as they reached directly through Austrians controlled territory many of the volunteers/ troops

  1. Assess the methods used by Hitler to maintain his regime

    administrators of every region of Germany, together to the Reichstag in order to centralize Germany for the first time, and thus be further able to control it. With most of the political German stage under his control, Hitler still had to deal with the army.

  2. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    - A few days later Iraq agreed to withdraw from Kuwait if Israel agreed to withdraw from the OTs and Syria from Lebanon. - Nov 29 the UN passed resolution 678 authorising the multinational coalition to 'use all necessary means' unless Iraq withdrew by Jan 15.

  1. History Essay (Bismarck's Influence on the German Unification

    The International Situation The international situation leading up to the three wars of German Unification, namely the Schleswig-Holstein War, the Austro-Prussian War and finally the Franco-Prussian War, was very much in favor of Bismarck?s plans of unification and could hence determine whether or not Bismarck was merely an opportunist.

  2. Factors That Helped The Rise of the Nazis

    Germany to law and order; ?the whole party?was ready to take over power? (Goebbels). The Structuralist view stresses that the economic conditions after the Great Depression and weaknesses of the Weimar Republic were the reason for the Nazi rise to power.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work