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Islams Golden Age

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Introduction

Islam, the youngest of all the world's religions emerged on the world scene in 622 CE. It all started with the migration of the Prophet Muhammad and his small band of followers from Mecca to Medina in northwest Arabia. This migration was known as the "Hijra". One hundred fifty years later the Muslim government, which claims Allah as the ultimate authority had become the Islamic Empire. "The empire controlled the Mediterranean Sea from Syria and the Tigris and Euphrates Valley, it stretched east to southern China and western India, and was as far south as what had been the Persian Empire and Saudi Arabia, they controlled the west through Egypt and across North Africa, and controlled north through Spain to the Pyrenees."(Doak) Founding the city of Baghdad and putting the Abbasid Caliphate in power, which consisted of Muslim leaders who were the successors of Muhammad set the stage for Islamic Golden Age. By the mid-8th century, Islam's golden age began to emerge. For 400 years, all the way until the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols in the mid-9th century. ...read more.

Middle

At about the same time, the so-called "Arabic" numerals inspired by India began to replace the previously accepted Roman numerals, and introduced the concept of zero for the first time. Public education, also ordered by the Prophet , spread rapidly. The Golden Age was a period of unrivalled intellectual progress in the field of literature, particularly dealing with biographies and history due to the intense studying being done of the Islamic faith . "Scholars, for example, in collecting and re-examining the hadith, or "traditions" - the sayings and actions of the Prophet - compiled immense biographical detail about the Prophet and other information, historic and linguistic, about the Prophet's era."(Lombard) This led to such literature works as "Life of the Messenger of Allah," by Ibn Ishaq. "One of the earliest Arabic historical works, it was a key source of information about the Prophet's life and also a model for other important works of history"(Benlafquih) . Smartly the Islamic Empire began translating and copying projects made by the Greeks and Romans, which made the information available to Arabic-speaking scholars across the empire. ...read more.

Conclusion

Although they often did not succeed in their intended goals, they did make numerous valuable discoveries. "Discoveries of the time period included the process to distill petroleum and the process of how to forge of steel.(Doak)" Since they had made advancements in every other field Mathematics would not be any different. "Islamic mathematicians refined algebra from its beginnings in Greece and Egypt, and developed trigonometry in pursuit of accurate ways to measure objects at a distance."(Lombard) Muslim scholars also made important and original contributions to astronomy. "They collected and corrected previous astronomical data, built the world's first observatory, and developed the astrolabe, an instrument that was once called "a mathematical jewel."(Lombard" The Crusades in the 12th and 13th centuries, the Mongol invasions in the 13th century and a number of plagues contributed to the weakening of the Islamic world and a gradual ending of the Islamic Golden Age." Its accomplishments however survived and The Islamic Golden Age will always be seen as one of the most positive periods in history. Still to this day the amount of progress in the amount of time is unmatched. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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