• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Italaian Unification Notes

Extracts from this document...


Notes on Italian Unification Italy in the Early 19th century * Late 18th century - 11 states in the Italian peninsula * 1790s - 1814: France ruled most of the peninsula * Because of the fear of revolution Austria took over the peninsula. Lombardy and Venetia were placed under direct Austrian rule, some Habsburgs ruled most states. * No federation under Austrian control (Italy is no more than a 'geographical expression'. * Carbonari - grievances (did not agree about the means to achieve their ends or even about the ends). All wanted to get rid of the monarchs and free Italy from Austria. Mazzini * Revolutions in 1820-21 and 1831 were unsuccessful * 1831 - Mazzini - 'Young Italy' - make Italy 'one free, independent republican nation' * wanted war of national liberation against Austria (hoped for the support of the educated middle class and urban artisans, little fate in the peasantry - little interest in land reform) * Mazzini's efforts of war failed * 1836 - Mazzini was forced to disband 'Young Italy' - his movement was too idealistic, his writings on a united Italy influenced people 1848-49 Revolutions * 1846-47 - poor harvests � potential revolutionary situation * 1848-49 revolutions - ...read more.


for union with Piedmont * 1860 - Cavour returned to power * Napoleon was now ready to accept Piedmontese expansion in central Italy * 1860 March - plebiscites - favoured annexation to Piedmont * Savoy and Nice - handed over to France * Northern and central Italy (except Venetia) - united under Victor Emmanuel * Cavour wanted to stop - Garibaldi had other ideas Garibaldi * initially supported Mazzini, then abandoned republican ideals, remained devoted to unity * inspired devotion among his men * practical: his achievements rested upon his actions rather than his thoughts * 1860 - revolt broke out in Sicily (King Francis was very conservative) * hoped to spark a nationalist uprising uniting Italy - asked Cavour's support - did not get it (Cavour thought it was not desirable, foreign governments might interfere it too much was done too quickly) * Emmanuel supported Garibaldi * 1860 May - sailed to Sicily in 2 old paddle steamers (did not have much chance to succeed) * won the Sicilian peasants support by promising land reform and tax reduction * won a surprise victory at Calatafimi * became 'dictator' * prepared to attack the mainland - feared that Cavour might prevent him using the ...read more.


behind unification * the Italy created in 1861 was not the Italy nationalists like Mazzini wanted * nationalism was a vital element (1859-60) National Society persuaded Italians they should support Piedmont * Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi had very different opinions but their interaction was crucial * Mazzini - provided the intellectual basis for nationalist movement and inspired some influential leaders (like Garibaldi). * Cavour - more important, once seen as an Italian nationalist whose every diplomatic manoeuvre was designed to promote unification, others say his chief concern was to extend Piedmontese power and to use the appeal of a united Italy as a means to this end. * Garibaldi - his contribution to unification was vital, his exploits made him a focal point for patriotic emotion, his conquest of the south in 1860 was a major element in the unification process. He could have been a dictator of southern Italy but believed in national unity to be more important than personal ambition. * Victor Emmanuel - often seen as lucky - he was at the right place at the right time. He appointed the right people (Cavour) who carried out his policies. ?? ?? ?? ?? R�ka Szepesv�ri History 20 IB March 24, 2010 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. Notes on German unification - main events

    on the war - There is a tremendous Prussian interest in military tactics - Von Roon and Moltke had every confidence that they would triumph against in Austria in the war - Just before getting into war, the Prussians were confident The Seven Weeks War - Moltke was responsible for

  2. Notes on Italian unification - background and main events

    political change and had to be Republican no monarchist - He was born in 1805, Genoa. His father was a University Professor but had radical political views; he was influenced by the Jacobins (an extreme group in the French Revolution).

  1. The Importance of Cavour, Mazzini and Garibaldi to Italian Unification

    divided by the Papal States, which would have then only through war be unifiable. However Garibaldi not only annexed Southern Italy for Piedmont but he also created a cult. Garibaldi was extremely popular with the people and had a sort of "superstar" status, through which he created unity as everyone could identify with him.

  2. To what extent was Napoleon III responsible for the unification of Italy?

    Cavour headed to the Papal States to stop the soldiers and he successfully avoided southern expansion by uniting it with the north altogether.

  1. French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon - revision notes

    Most of the population (about 84%) lived in rural areas - France was an agricultural country. Its largest city was Paris (it has over half a million of inhabitants). Social structure before the Revolution: the social structure for centuries was based on the system of feudal obligation.

  2. Napoleon III contributions to the Italian unification.

    Rome was the home of the old Roman Emperors and the symbol of past greatness. The French garrison in Rome and Austrian occupation of Venetia were constant reminders that the work of driving the foreigner had not been completed. So Napoleon was going to provide solutions to these problems.

  1. Italian Unification Revision Notes. Italian Politics in 1815

    Ferdinand declared that he had been forced to grant the constitution out of fear and asked for Austria to help him restore his rule. Metternich did not have to ask twice. The Austrian army entered Naples in March 1821. Severe reprisals were meted out to citizens indiscriminately by the Austrian authorities.

  2. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution.

    Effects on peasants 1. Freedom from noble interference and control as well as forced military service 2. Mir?s power was strengthened which aided local autonomy. 3. Kulaks emerged and were resented by the peasants. 4. Overall loss of land (4% in less fertile regions and 23.6% in the Black Soil)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work