• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Notes on Italian unification - background and main events

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Italy and the Congress of Vienna 1815 - Napoleon had conquered Italy and rearranged it into a small number of Italian republics - To some degree, he left behind a sense of Italian nationalism in the country - Napoleon has just been defeated at Waterloo in June 1815 and was exiled to Saint Helena - Main representatives at Vienna: o Britain; represented by Lord Castlereagh o Habsburg Emperor o Russian Emperor o King of Prussia o France; represented by Talleyrand - Louis XVII is restored as King of France for the second time in 1815 after Napoleon's exile - All the leaders wanted to establish a Cordon Sanitaire on France to prevent the spreading of revolution - The decision- makers at Vienna decided to return Italy to strong dynastic rulers; o The Habsburgs were given two states of Northern Italy; Lombardy and Venetia. They had four fortresses in these two states; Mantua, Pieschiera, Legnano and Verona o Most other Northern Italian states were given to minor Habsburg rulers o Central Italy was more or less part of the Papal States; under the Pope's rule. They would support monarchial principles and be ruled as a monarchy by the Pope o In the south, Naples and Sicily were ruled by Spanish Bourbons - What were the main obstacles to Italian Unification and how were they overcome? o The territorial adjustments of Italy made by the peacemakers in Vienna were deliberately set up to hold back Italian Unification o Austria was put in the North with a great deal of power and was prepared to send troops outside their assigned territory to put down revolutions, especially between 1815 and 1848 o Austrian armies always defeated Italian armies o Count Metternich was Chancellor of the Habsburg Empire. His political system was to use secret police against revolutionaries to support Monarchial rule o Rulers, courters and often officers opposed revolutions, as they were aristocrats living in an autocratic system which they benefitted from o There was no sense of Italian Nationalism; the average person in Italy had no perception of being Italian. ...read more.

Middle

in France - At this meeting; 2 men (Cavour and Napoleon III) met secretly in July 1858 in a small town in Plombieres --> Cavour has come to the conclusion that he cannot unify Italy without international help (a foreign power is needed to achieve this, FRANCE) - Napoleon wants to help Italy, but in a non-revolutionary way - Cavour made it clear that the French garrison would remain in Rome --> for public appearances - Napoleon even proposed a French candidate for the throne of Naples --> nothing came of it - Napoleon does this for his prestige - There was to be a Kingdom of upper Italy under the house of Savoy (the Monarchy of Piedmont); Lombardy, Venetia and a small part of the Papal states would be offered to Piedmont; this was all a secret agreement between Napoleon and Cavour - There was also supposed to be a central Italian State - It is important to know that neither Cavour nor Napoleon III thought in terms of setting up a unitary Italian State and Cavour's aims were more limited to enlarging Piedmont and drive out the Austrians. France gets glory and prestige out of it - Napoleon says he wants Nice and Savoy as a form of reward for his help (not just glory) --> Cavour easily agreed to Savoy, but nice would be more difficult - Victor Emmanuel's daughter (he was King of Piedmont) was to marry Prince Napoleon (Napoleon's cousin)--> dynastic relations - They thought that at least 300, 000 troops would be necessary to defeat Austria; Napoleon thought this would be difficult because the Austrians would not give up their land easily. The Italians (Piedmont) could only offer 100, 000 troops so the French would have to offer the majority of the troops - January 1859 --> the details above become part of a secret Franco- Italian treaty. ...read more.

Conclusion

back on Italy because- o In 1864- the Pope had issued the Syllabus of Errors which condemned nationalism and liberalism - At the same time, the Italians had been anti-clerical (against the Church) - These feelings last until 1929 Overall Conclusions of Italian Unification 1) By enlarge Italian Unification was complete by 1870 except for some areas such as South Tyrol that were still not part of the unified Italy 2) Italy was unified as a monarchy under Piedmont 3) 1861- the capital of the New Italy had been Turin then Florence, and eventually it became Rome 4) "We have made Italy, now we must make Italians"- Massimo Dazeglio; this obstacle was never really overcome even after unification --> Particularism still existed 5) Many Italians died fighting against unification; in Naples they were still in support of the Bourbons 6) Anti-clericalism of Piedmont now was spread to the rest of Italy 7) The legacy of Cavour; New Italy should be constitutional, centralized and based on a parliamentary assembly (Mazzini did not join this assembly). Skepticism about the parliamentary assembly: a. Population of Italy was 22 million people; of those only 500, 000 could vote --> only 300, 000 actually voted --> voting was restricted to the uppermost strata of the society... could we call this true democracy? b. There were always coalition governments c. There is bargaining for power d. It is an inherently unstable system e. A lack of party development 8) There tend to be two views of Italian Unification; a. First view: a famous British historian, Denis Mack Smith said that Cavour was a man without scruple and he saw Italian Unification as a matter of political opportunism and cynicism. He believes Italian Unification is a result of chance, bargaining and calculation. He also sees tension between Cavour and Garibaldi (as a positive thing) b. Second view: that the first view itself is too cynical; there should be passion, suffering, sacrifice and glory --> its heroic and romantic NOT cynical 9) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. To what extent was Napoleon III responsible for the unification of Italy?

    Napoleon's participation in the war was very effective; for Austria to be able to stand up to both French and Piedmontese armies, it would have to gather its scattered troops from the borders and the peninsula. Napoleon was credited with taking part in the first step towards the removal of Austrian control as its presence was slowly diminishing.

  2. To what extent can Napoleon be considered the "Son of the Revolution"?

    Even taxation, which was a massive issue in the revolution, was not equal in Napoleon's France. He increased indirect taxation in a large scale, consuming good such as tobacco, playing card and alcohol were overwhelming expensive and taxation was absurd.

  1. Why was Germany unified by Prussia and not by Austria?

    By 1859, the War Minister, Albrecht von Roon of Prussia tried to pass a reform of the army to the parliament. These reforms included removing the importance of the reserve militia, the Landwehr (which had the advantage of being freer from the detested spirit Junker militarism and of costing them far less in taxes for the liberal majority.).

  2. the importance of the role of Bismarck in the unification of Germany in 1871

    Bismarck now had two-thirds of Germany under Prussian rule and was a Prussian hero even in Parliament. As Bismarck saw it, to fully unify Germany, he needed another war that would bring all the German states together and create a strong sense of nationalism; this war was to be the Franco-Prussian / Franco-German War.

  1. French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon - revision notes

    In the second half of 17th century France was an absolute monarchy on the rule of the hereditary monarch, who was the sole source of political power. He ruled with support of the nobility. LOUIS XIV from BOURBON DYNASTY -> ruled France during the late 17th and early 18th century.

  2. The Unification of Germany

    Bismarck knew however, that it was dangerous to provoke Austria to open war, since France might become involved and join the Austrians. Therefore, Bismarck met up with the French ruler Napoleon in 1865. There they discussed allegiances and if France was to stay neutral, she would receive territory after the war with Austria, which Napoleon accepted.

  1. The cold war - the conferences and the start of the cCold War

    However, despite appeals from the Magyars for help from the West, none was forthcoming h) Finally, Soviet forces including tanks in overwhelming numbers re- entered Hungary and there was a second period of fighting in Budapest i) November 1956; in two weeks of fighting, numbers of Hungarians killed was probably about 3000 with 7-8 thousand Russian soldiers killed.

  2. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution.

    Theory and practice were very different. E. Acton Russia ?Government?s overriding concern to ensure domestic stability ruled out the possibility of landless emancipation? peasant agriculture must not be jeopardized and that the peasantry?remain closely bound to the land?landless proletariat avoided?nobility were able to reduce the quantity and quality of

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work