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The Glorious Revolution

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During the seventeenth century, two great internal conflicts: the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution plagued England. These two events were the resistance of the English people against the arbitrary power of the absolute monarchy. Despite being two different conflicts, the two wars helped England undermine the power of the absolute monarchy and resulted in the creation of a small balance of power between the King and Parliament. The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution had various, different causes, occurrences and effects. The causes of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution differed in various ways. James VI, who was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, took over the English Throne initiated the causes of civil war in England. James VI took over the throne because Queen Elizabeth, who was a Tudor, had no children and thus had no heir to the throne. After his ascension to the throne, James VI became the English King James I. During his reign, James I caused much conflict because he was uninformed about English customs, laws and institutions. Due to this fact, James I advocated various laws that went against powerful English institutions such as the Anglican Church. ...read more.


After the new Parliament passed several laws pertaining to religion, Charles II issued the Declaration of Indulgence, which eliminated all laws that were passed against Catholics and Puritans. In reaction to the Declaration of Indulgence, the Parliament issued the Test Act of 1673, which stated that only Anglicans could hold civil and military offices. While Charles II and the Parliament were arguing, there was a Catholic Plot to assassinate Charles II and replace him with James, his brother. Even though it was a fake plot, the members of Parliament were alarmed and attempted to pass a bill, which would prevent James's ascension to the throne. During the debate concerning James's ascension, the Parliament broke into two groups: the Whigs and the Tories. Even though both groups were Protestant, their views on James's ascension differed greatly. The Whigs advocated James's exclusion from royal power and an establishment of a Protestant King. By contrast, even though the Tories hated James for being a Catholic, they believed that Parliament shouldn't intervene with the rightful succession of the throne and thus wanted to establish James as the new king. To prevent Parliament from accomplishing either plan, Charles I dissolved Parliament and relied on French subsidies to gather taxes and rule alone. ...read more.


After William of Orange and Mary took over England, Parliament gained a significant amount of power by passing the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights assured Parliament that only it would have the privilege to make laws and levy new taxes. Furthermore, the Bill of Rights stated that the king could not interfere in Parliament's meetings. Also, the Bill of Rights gave liberal rights such as the right to petition, bear arms and etc. The most significant aspect of the Bill of Rights was that it laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy. To stress the destruction of absolutism in England, Parliament crowned the king instead of God, as stated in the divine right theory. As a result of the Glorious Revolution, Kings lost absolute power and thus Parliament acquired significant power that enabled it to participate in government affairs. In conclusion, the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution had various different causes, occurrences and results. The English Civil War caused the destruction of the monarchy, but in the end, it resulted in its restoration. Nevertheless, the English Civil War enabled the Glorious Revolution to change England into a limited constitutional Monarchy. Indeed, the shift to a limited constitutional monarchy enabled England to be ahead of the rest of Europe both politically and socially for several centuries. Kevin Lih Mr. Duvall AP European History Period 2 1/28/08 Review Essay ...read more.

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