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The Never Ending War: between India and Pakistan

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Introduction

The Never Ending War: between India and Pakistan Kaushik Surisetty April 29, 2009 History 20IB Mr. Lissinna Word count: 1843 A. Plan of the investigation The topic of this investigation is the Indo-Pakistan wars of 1947-1949, 1965, and 1971. We will look at the causes, practices and the effects of the war. The question that will be answered through this paper is why the first Indo-Pakistani war in 1947 was triggered and was it predominately the religious differences between each country. Since the creation of the independent nations of Pakistan and India in 1947, Kashmir has been the subject of a political tug-of-war between India and Pakistan. Religious aspects appear to play a significant role in the ongoing conflict, yet geopolitical, economic, and other factors must also be examined. It is important to consider to what extent religious differences have shaped the Kashmir conflict. 1 B. Summary of Evidence Indo-Pakistani Wars were three wars occurred between India and Pakistan after they gained independence from Britain in 1947. The first and second wars (1947 -1949 and 1965) were fought for the territory of Jammu and Kashmir now known as only Kashmir, in the subcontinent in the northwestern part of the Indian. The authority of this state still remains a matter of dispute between India and Pakistan. The third war (1971) involved Indian military's intrusion in a civil war in Pakistan. This brief and decisive interference resulted in the independence of Pakistan's eastern province, East Pakistan, as the nation of Bangladesh.2 The British impacted the two countries as the British gave them their independence. ...read more.

Middle

Together theses two sources deal with multiple levels of in depth study, which can help an historian make a decision of multiple view points on the issue. The sources are also based on much factual information about the subject. The author may have a certain bias as this is mostly likely a second hand source but it can be credited that the information presented is valid as all these events have occurred in the past century. The validity of the facts is highly reliable. The authors are very highly educated and are doctors in their study field, making them a reliable source for this investigation. Their purpose of writing is clearly to inform the reader of the current situation of the conflict of India and Pakistan by explaining the history of their conflict. Citing Ranbir Vohra's The Making of India, Dr. Hanks further argues that the Kashmir conflict is an extension of communalism, or the tendency of religious groups to protect one's own interests above everything else. The second Perspective author, Dr. Charles Fuller, does not disagree with the assessment that the people of Kashmir have fought to protect Kashmir's interests, but he contends that religious interests are only one of several root causes of the conflict. Dr. Fuller asserts that both hydro political issues and territorial interests have played a much larger role as India and Pakistan have struggled to dominate each other. The Kashmir struggle, Dr. Fuller says, is not rooted in religious conflict so much as in cultural, political, and geopolitical differences. ...read more.

Conclusion

Muslims lived in majority yet were not in control. But the aspect of the war for the countries to gain land and resources is definitely another viewpoint. Perhaps Gandhi was right in that, there should have been only one nation and that the people of Pakistan and India: Hindu or Muslim should have been a part of a greater and peaceful nation: being one country of many ethnicities. F. Sources * ABC-CLIO. "Background Essay." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO. http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com (accessed April 28, 2009). * "India-Pakistan wars." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO. http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com (accessed April 28, 2009). * Fuller, Charles J., "The Conflict in Kashmir is Geopolitical." World History: The Modern Era.ABC-CLIO. http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com (accessed April 26, 2009). * Ganguly, Sumit, "Indo-Pakistani Wars," in Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) Online Encyclopedia 2009, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761588350_4/Indo-Pakistani_Wars.html (accessed April 26) * Reuel, Hanks, "The Kashmiri Conflict is Religious in Nature." World History: The Modern Era.ABC-CLIO. http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com (accessed April 26, 2009). * Strass, Steven D., The Complete Idiot's Guide to: World Conflicts (New York: The Penguin Group, 2006), 175-186. * "British Policy in India (1946)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO. http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com (accessed April 28, 2009). 1 Hanks Reuel, "The Kashmiri Conflict is Religious in Nature." World History: The Modern Era.ABC-CLIO. http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com (accessed April 26, 2009). Charles J. Fuller, "The Conflict in Kashmir is Geopolitical." World History: The Modern Era.ABC-CLIO. http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com (accessed April 26, 2009). 2Sumit Ganguly, "Indo-Pakistani Wars," in Microsoft(r) Encarta(r) Online Encyclopedia 2009, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761588350_4/Indo-Pakistani_Wars.html (accessed April 26) 3 Reuel and Fuller 4 Ibid 5 Fuller 6"British Policy in India (1946)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO.http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com (accessed April 28, 2009). 7 Ibid 8 Fuller 9 Ibid 10 Ibid 11 Reuel ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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