• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The outbreak of the First World War

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Thesis statement: The war was premeditated by the 'Central powers' (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire), un-avoided and accepted by the allied powers (Russia, France, Italy, Britain, Portugal and Greece) and the result of acts deliberately committed in order to make it unavoidable. Body German Responsibility Topic sentence: A.J.P Taylor and F.Fischer: Germany deliberately engineered the war in pursuit of expansionist aims which were really a prelude to the designs of Hitler. * An assumption of basic German liability * Criticism of the negative policies of the Allies * Broader survey of the whole system of alliances and war schedules. * Germany didn't feel certain of her allies, and didn't want to be isolated amidst hostile neighbors. * As a result of this dilemma, Bethmann Hollweg decided on a 'diagonal' policy. * He decided to encourage Austrian government after Sarajevo to take military action against Serbia so that war would break out & Germany would smash the Entente with the Schlieffen plan. ...read more.

Middle

* The tone of ultimatum antagonized most of Europe, even Ally Italy who said "Austria has plainly shown that she means to provoke a war..." Russia's Responsibility Topic sentence: Germany may, in collusion with Austria-Hungary, have precipitated the war, but the Allied powers did little to avoid it. * Russia and France were willing to accept the challenge. * Russia had Austrophobia since the Bosnian crisis of 1908 * Tsar identified Russian diplomacy with expansionism. * According to memorandum by Sazanov, a conference held by the Tsar on 8th February produced a consensus that a general European war was likely because of collapse of Turkey and Austro-Serb conflict. * Mobilization plans were prepared to give confidence to Russian General Staff. * There was constant pressure from the General staff to blind civilian leadership to Russia's military weaknesses. * As a result, Russia was the 1st of the major powers to undergo general mobilization. ...read more.

Conclusion

* This was because as an imperial power, Britain didn't want to be involved in a continental struggle. * By 4th August, Liberal gov. made a direct commitment to intervene. Conclusion * Europe showing a willingness to rush into war was for three main reasons: * For years the powers had resentments and grievances, being accustomed to pushing claims in order to avoid diplomatic humiliation, which led them to pursue dangerous policies and a willingness to accept the risk of war. * The alliances can't be sufficient explanations for outbreak of war because they were defensive (i.e 1879 Dual Alliance), and the way the war broke out had little relation to treaty obligations (e.g. Russia had no contractual obligation to assist Serbia). * However, alliances did affect international relations (colonization) and contribute to the growth of tension in Europe in the decade before 1914. * Alliances had direct bearing on the arms race and development of military schedules. The Outbreak of the First World War Outline 10/13/10 6:30 PM 10/13/10 6:30 PM 10/13/10 6:30 PM ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. Why were the central powers defeated in the First World War

    The Germans were sinking a lot of ships. However in May 1915 the Germans sank a ship call Lusitania were 115 American citizens were killed. After the sinking of Lusitania, the Germans had to end submarine warfare in order to prevent America from entering the war and fighting against Germany.

  2. What Effect Did World War II have on Eastern Europe?

    Therefore, Romania continued to make reparation payments until the 1990s. Romania was also the United States' largest trading partner in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1980s and received the "Most Favorable Nation" certification which entailed benefits such as no tariffs on exported goods15.

  1. Wars frequently begin ten years before the first shot is fired. To what extent ...

    Germany's greed to keep Russia as an ally led to the Reinsurance Treaty of 1887. In 1890, Russia wanted to renew the Reinsurance Treaty. However, Germany refused. As a result, Russia had to look for a potential ally and thus it turned to France.

  2. "Wars frequently begin ten years before the first shot is fired." To ...

    At this point, tension had risen high and if there was any war at this point, it would have been only between these powers. But then the attention shifted to the Balkans, a very complex region, exploding with nationalism stronger than ever.

  1. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution.

    Red Guards only disciplined group like the SA. 3. PG reputation shattered and PG began to disintegrate. Bolsheviks gained support because they were seen as the defenders of Petrograd and were now armed while other political parties were not armed.

  2. Assess the importance of Balkan Nationalism as a reason for the outbreak of the ...

    But Bulgaria lost again. With the decline of Bulgaria and Turkey, Serbia gained a lot of power in the Balkans and Austria ?Hungary felt threatened by a Serbia growing power and wants to stop it before it?s too late. Why was Serbia so unmanageable and dangerous?

  1. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Israel, Egypt and Jordan attended. Syria boycotted the conference. - May 1974, Kissinger achieved a disengagement accord between Israel and Syria regarding the Golan heights. - Over the next two years, Kissinger continued to facilitate negotiations between Israel and Egypt.

  2. Why did Tsarism fail to survive the first world war

    1914, but after the battle of Tannenberg which proved to be a devastating defeat for the Russian army due to the advanced German war machine and technologically backwards equipment of the Russians, produced 70,000 deaths and 100,000 taken prisoner on the Russian side.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work