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The United States' pursuit of Pancho Villa jeopardized American security to such an extent that other threats and security breaches were ignored

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Introduction

´╗┐Part A: The actions of Francisco 'Pancho' Villa[1] played a significant role in the rising tensions between the Mexican and American governments. This raised the question of; to what extent did the pursuit of Villa jeopardize American security? The Punitive Expedition[2] resulted in a reduction of American military forces on the defensive front at home. It also caused the violence inflicted toward Southern American triggered by Pancho Villa. To ensure the question was answered effectively, only the time period during which Americans were dispatched, from March 1916 to May 1921 was considered. The two main books were The General and the Jaguar by Eileen Welsome and The United States and Pancho Villa by Clarence C. Clendenen. These sources were evaluated for their relevance, with explicit reference to origin, purpose, value, and limitations. The United States' pursuit of Villa jeopardized American security to such an extent that other threats and security breaches were ignored. Part B: Since the outbreak of World War One in 1914, Wilson had pursued a policy of neutrality with the support of the American public. This plan was tested by Germany's restoration of the unrestricted submarine warfare policy, which was the only method to ensure German victory, despite explicit disapproval from Americans.[3] With the constant threat of war, the United States wanted to avoid conflict with Mexico, but Americans were calling for revenge after Villa's attack on Columbus.[4] Following Villa's raid on Columbus, there were unexpected troop movements in Sonora and the border states reported. ...read more.

Middle

Despite the rising threat of war from Europe, American intelligence was side tracked with orders from the state department to evaluate Mexican forces following the raid on Columbus. The reasoning being to determine military details about enemies that were not on American territory and thus could not be an imminent threat to American security. These authorities would have been occupied with tasks focused upon the German threats had it not been for the State orders. Therefore, by employing US intelligence for Mexican affairs, European threats were left unattended. This allowed the Germans to potentially inflict harm upon the United States as a whole through espionage, and physical invasion to not only massacre the population but to inflict harm upon the economy and the prospering industrial revolution. With the intelligence preoccupied, there was no way to have as many reports on the details of the European war. This left the Axis powers with the opportunity to invade America or gain reconnaissance on American soil effectively, since there would be more frequent and accessible gaps to get information through. The United States of America expressed their hopes of collaboration with the Mexicans in order to disband Pancho Villa and his group of bandits, whereas no such attempts were made against the Axis Powers despite the imminent dangers from both threats, only one was looked after. ...read more.

Conclusion

The objective of this military operation was to disband the groups of bandits that terrorized the United States of America. [3] Hurst, James W. Pancho Villa and Black Jack Pershing. (Westport: Praeger, 2008), 37-38. [4] Welsome, Eileen. The General and the Jaguar. (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2006), 157. [5] Clendenen, Clarence C. The United States and Pancho Villa: A Study in Unconventional Diplomacy. (Dallas: Taylor Publishing company, 1961), 264-265. [6] Hurst, James W. Pancho Villa and Black Jack Pershing. (Westport: Praeger, 2008), 41. [7] Welsome, Eileen. The General and the Jaguar. (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2006), 88-89. [8] Clendenen, Clarence C. The United States and Pancho Villa: A Study in Unconventional Diplomacy. (Dallas: Taylor Publishing company, 1961), 255. [9] Clendenen, Clarence C. The United States and Pancho Villa: A Study in Unconventional Diplomacy. (Dallas: Taylor Publishing company, 1961), 264. [10] Clendenen, Clarence C. The United States and Pancho Villa: A Study in Unconventional Diplomacy. (Dallas: Taylor Publishing company, 1961), 256. [11] Hurst, James W. Pancho Villa and Black Jack Pershing. (Westport: Praeger, 2008), 104-105. [12] Bunker, Steven B. "The General and the Jaguar: Pershing's Hunt for Pancho Villa: A True Story of Revolution and Revenge" The Historian Vol. 71 (2009) [13] Bunker, Steven B. "The General and the Jaguar: Pershing's Hunt for Pancho Villa: A True Story of Revolution and Revenge" The Historian Vol. 71 (2009) [14] Welsome, Eileen. The General and the Jaguar. (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2006). ...read more.

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