• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent can Berlin or Vienna can be held accountable for the start of WW1?

Extracts from this document...


History HL History Internal Assessment To what extent can Berlin or Vienna can be held accountable for the start of WW1? Candidate Name: Vladimir Nardin Candidate Number: Center Number: May 2010 Session Word Count: 2000 words Contents Page Section A: Plan of Investigation page 3 Section B: Summary of Evidence page 3 Section C: Evaluation of Sources page 5 Section D: Analysis page 6 Section E: Conclusion page 8 Section F: Bibliography page 9 A: Plan of Investigation To what extent can Berlin or Vienna can be held accountable for the start of WW1? Subject: This investigation seeks to examine the origins of World War One in relation to Austria-Hungary and Germany. Furthermore, this investigation seeks to establish from which personages the pressure for war came and to assess to what extent each country can be held accountable for its outbreak. The debate revolves around the Orthodox viewpoint where Germany is held accountable and Nationalism in Austria-Hungary's case. Method a. Research for bibliography about the origins of WW1. Instrument: Books. The main criteria used for this selection were: reliability of the source, how recently they were written/updated. b. Examination of two primary sources to support main thesis: Count Szogyney, Austrian Ambassador in Berlin to Count Leopold Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian foreign minister, 5 July 1914 (letter) ...read more.


However, the source does not give us an ensemble of the decisions of Kaiser Franz Joseph "His Apostolic Majesty... would be reluctant to march into Serbia"7. This casts serious doubt of whether or not Austria-Hungary truly desired a European war as it was pressured by Germany. Another limitation consists of the fact that the source is a letter with specific personal opinions and not an official declaration of war by Austria-Hungary upon Serbia. Additionally, it does not give the full picture of events only concentrating on the relationship between Austria-Hungary and Germany and not on the global European diplomatic situation (July Crisis). Source B: War Fever in Vienna Excerpt from the front-page article in the London Times on 27th July 1914. Report from a correspondent in Vienna. The origin of Source B is Excerpt from an article in the London Times on 27th July 1914. The article was a report from a correspondent in Vienna. The purpose of this newspaper article is to inform the reader of the general situation and mood in Vienna concerning the Austro-Serb conflict after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. This is described as "war fever"8 in the article. This document is of great value to historians. It gives clear and concise details on the development of the general mood in Vienna towards an armed conflict with Serbia "A crowd ...another ...read more.


was seriously threatened by Serbian panslavist's ambitions. E: Conclusion In conclusion, Joachim Renak, Bernadotte Schmitt and F.R. Bridge all view that Austria-Hungary in July 1914 went to war to save itself. Fear dominated the Viennese planners; fear of Pan-Slavic nationalism; fear of loosing the military advantage to Serbia, Russia and France; and fear of forfeiting Berlin's support. Austria-Hungary had to emerge from the crisis as the dominant political force in the Balkans. Both the pace and the decision-making remained in the hands of Conrad von Hotzendorf, Austrian Chief of staff, and the Foreign Minister Berchtold. In July 1914, nothing short of war even a World War could achieve that purpose. Nonetheless, there is a general agreement amongst historians that German decision-making was a crucial element in the tense situation after the June assassination. It has been widely asserted by Fritz Fischer, John Leslie, John Lowe and Paul Kennedy that German foreign policy held the key to the situation in the summer of 1914. Bethmann Hollweg, Foreign prime minister, held the pivotal role. It was the German desire to profit diplomatically and militarily from the 'third Balkan crisis', which widened the conflict from an Eastern Europe one to a continental and world war. Ultimately, I believe for those reasons that Austria-Hungary and Germany both tried to exploit the July Crisis to their own benefits, engendering the First World War making them responsible for its origins. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. The cold war - the conferences and the start of the cCold War

    Potsdam was a step further than Yalta in the beginning of the Cold War Suspicions and Historical Animosities 1) There is the view that Cold War was the normal state of affairs between the USSR and the West. America, Britain and France had sent troops to put down the Bolshevik Revolution.

  2. Causes of WW1

    Therefore it can be said that Imperialism gave the countries a long term start to their rivalries. It gave them a background of unrest and instability. Another major cause of the war was militarism between the countries in Europe. During the period from 1870-1914 an arms race was going on between the countries.

  1. To what extent did the Prague spring weaken Moscow(TM)s hold over Czechoslovakia, and Eastern ...

    towards the end of July where the reforms were discussed. The Czech politburo again met the Soviets on the 3rd August with other Bloc leaders. It can be inferred that Dubcek dealt with the Soviets with tact, despite evidence that points to him not being a very persuasive man, for

  2. Nazi Germany

    The war went quite bad for Germany and civilians had to make sacrifices and work more and were not satisfied (propaganda to reverse it), also Hitler disappeared for the public at this stage - Women drafted to into the labour force in increasing numbers - Nazi support weakened as the

  1. The Treaty of Versailles vs. The Treaty of Vienna. Both the Congress of Vienna, ...

    a war again; in other words present French belligerence was prevented and there was peace. As a result, the actual purpose of redrawing of the European territorial map was achieved as it guaranteed peace. However it was left to a system of alliances to preserve that peace.

  2. Why did Germany & Her Allies Lose WW1?

    Throughout the war, Germany's allies proved to be rather inefficient in contributing to the war effort and their collective surrender meant a cut off in supplies and resources for Germany, which were already scarce. Some believed that at the start of the war, Germany appeared strong enough to fight the entirety of the war on its own.

  1. To what extent did Alexander II's reforms cause more problems than they solved?

    Also, imports of raw cotton increased by as much as 140,000 tons. Banking and credit facilities improved and Reutern's reform of taxes resulted in cheaper vodkas for the peasants - probably their single affordable treat... Reutern rationalised treasury and soon the financial stability of the government was re-established after the Crimean defeat.

  2. Extended Essay - The Role of a UN-Secretary General to Achieve World Peace: The ...

    Michael Dobbs - The National Security Archive - One Minute to Midnight: "Kennedy, Khrushchev and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War," 18th June 2008 (<http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/dobbs/warheads.htm>). Oracle Education Foundation - The Cuban Missile Crisis- Fourteen Days in October (<http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html>). October 27, 1962: U.S.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work