• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent was Napoleon III responsible for the unification of Italy?

Extracts from this document...


To what extent was Napoleon III responsible for the unification of Italy? Napoleon III's contribution to the unification of Italy was decisive but inadvertent. He was somewhat indirectly responsible as his decisions played an important role in the unification of Italy. However, Napoleon III was not the only actor responsible; Count Camillo di Cavour, the prime minister of Piedmont, also unintentionally led to such unification. Napoleon and Cavour had no intention of unifying Italy; Cavour was interested in Piedmontese augmentation, while Napoleon was concerned with French interests and personal glory. While Napoleon's decisions and motivations led to Italian unification, Cavour's participation also contributed to the formation of the Italian state. Napoleon's motives played a crucial part in his desire to occupy himself with the Italian question. It was his personal ambition to glorify his name that led Napoleon to misleadingly support the idea of a united Italy. In order to achieve unification, Italy would have to rid itself of Austrian control. Napoleon saw this as a golden opportunity; Austrian power had prevented any French influence over the Italian peninsula and if he were to aid Italy in the disposal of Austrian power over Italy, he could then apply his own influence over Italy. ...read more.


Austria was defeated by Prussia and could no longer hold Venice. Prussia had pressured Austria to hand over Venetia to Italy, but Austria refused to do so directly; instead, it handed it over to France in order to humiliate Italy by dismissing it and not recognizing it as a power. It ceded it to France, and Napoleon III handed his acquisition to the Italian government. It was Napoleon's decision to give Venetia to Italy, and this was yet another vital step towards Italian unification. The deterioration of Franco-Prussian relations was another disreputable contribution to Italian unification. War erupted between the two, and Napoleon withdrew his troops from Rome to fight Prussia. France was defeated and the empire collapsed. Napoleon's defeat led the Sardinian King Victor Emmanuel to make military preparations for Rome because French troops were no longer there to control the city. Italian troops entered Rome after the Pope refused to negotiate yet again, and he surrendered. Rome was added to the kingdom and instantly became the new capital. The brief withdrawal of Napoleon III's troops from the city of Rome had involuntarily completed the geographical unification of the kingdom of Italy. ...read more.


Some consider that Cavour played a bigger role in Italian unification than Napoleon III did, but unity would not have taken place if it were not for Napoleon. The French emperor provided Sardinia with diplomatic and military support and without it Cavour would not have been able to defeat Austria in 1859. Napoleon also took part in the cession of Lombardy to Piedmont as he met with Franz Joseph, the Austrian emperor, to negotiate peaceful outcomes; Napoleon had convinced Franz Joseph to give up Lombardy. Napoleon III helped Sardinia acquire Venetia as well seeing that after the Austro-Prussian war, Venetia was handed over to Napoleon who in turn gave it to Cavour. Both Cavour and Napoleon III played crucial roles in the unification of Italy. Austrian influence could not have been eliminated from northern Italy without the massive amount of military aid provided by France. The removal of the French garrison from Rome was not a result of Napoleon's desire to see Italian unification but was rather forced upon him as the Franco-Prussian war broke out. He had helped expel Austria, expand Piedmont, and contributed to the creation the Kingdom of Italy. Cavour was also responsible for Italian unification; had he not unified the northern and southern parts of Italy, the creation of Italy would not have happened. ?? ?? ?? ?? Yosra Salaheldin ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. Notes on Italian unification - background and main events

    retained the constitution - With the fall of Metternich in March 1848, there was a revolution in Milan and Venice (against the Habsburgs); and the Habsburgs had to withdraw from both Milan and Venice - Tuscany; the Duke granted a constitution and sent troops to fight the Austrians.

  2. French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon - revision notes

    Georges Danton-> headed the Cordelieres during the Revolution. He and his followers pursued the policy of moderation ( wstrzemiezliwosc) and reconciliation (pojednanie). He must deal with hard military situation. First Coalition-> after Louis' XVI death. He was executed in January 1793 and the First Coalition was established. It consisted of some European powers: Great Britain, Austria and Prussia (against France).

  1. Napoleon III contributions to the Italian unification.

    of Italy and that napoleon III would not have wanted in any the whole Italian Peninsula united into a single kingdom because it could represent a threat to France. As we saw before, it was now quite certain that Napoleons plans were based on the expulsion of the Austrians and

  2. Italian Unification Revision Notes. Italian Politics in 1815

    Italy became unified from above, much to his disgust. He described the new Italian unified state as a 'dead corpse'. � Some may judge that Italy unified on Mazzinian lined could have been a more liberal, progressive and altogether preferable state to the one that did emerge.

  1. Unification of Italy

    Nationalism had grown stronger and a national language had encouraged people to think of themselves as Italians. Also the bad harvest of the previous two years had badly affected the peasants who together with the middle class started the revolutions.

  2. Assess the relative importance of Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi to the unification of Italy ...

    From his Swiss exile, Mazzini supported revolutionary movements in Sardinia including an attempted army revolution of 1833 and an attempted invasion of Savoy of 1834. Mazzini's 'Young Italy' established divisions in many Italian cities for the preparation of Italian independence and Mazzini argued that through coordinated rebellions, the people could

  1. Italian Unification: True Father of Italy

    Some believe it was the combination of Cavour and Garibaldi or even Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi as the three musketeers of unification (Farmer 2006, 20). Without a doubt, Mazzini, Cavour, Napoleon III and King Victor Emmanuel all contributed to the unification of Italy with their diplomacy, foreign policy, political and military involvements.

  2. To what extent was President Lyndon B. Johnson responsible for the escalation of the ...

    The purpose of this speech was to justify and explain the conflict in Vietnam and the increasing US involvement: "[Americans and Asians] are dying for a world where each person may choose its own path to change". He further explains that the US "have a promise to keep" as they

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work