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What were the reasons and results for the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan?

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Introduction

What were the reasons and results for the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan? By the time the Second World War had come to its tumultuous end, tensions had already begin to rise between former allies. While the War which had once held Europe at the brink of destruction was finally over, a new threat loomed overhead. The polarization of the Capitalist powers, including the United States and her ally Great Britain and the Communist states of Soviet Russia and her allies further darkened any hopes of a peaceful future. As both powers scrambled to exert their power, it became clear that valuable allies were necessary as a means of deterrence and support in case war were to break out. The United States aimed to spread its influence and ideologies for this very reason. As the threat of war continued to increase, drastic measures needed to be undertaken. To begin, this essay will critically examine the reasons for which the United States instituted the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, and the results which they had on the countries affected by them. Two years after the Second World War, countries were reeling under its economic repercussions. ...read more.

Middle

However, there is much debate as to the underlying reasons for said Doctrine. As per the Orthodox view, Truman had no choice but to resort to the Truman Doctrine due to the underlying rifts in Soviet- American relations due to the aggressive Soviet aggression. Already, many Slavic and Baltic states had come under the grasp of Soviet expansionism, and the Orthodox View points out that there was no other way for the United States to abate the proliferation of communism. However, the Revisionist School of thought maintains that it was due to the aggressive American demand for U.S- friendly markets led to the enactment of the Truman Doctrine. It points out that the insatiable demand of American Capitalism was one of the main reasons as spreading capitalism would guarantee open markets for America. Furthermore, by 1947, the US Secretary of State George Marshall formulated a plan for the economic revival of the ailing European economies known as the Marshall Plan. This plan provided American financial support to the war-torn Europe. While all countries were eligible, they had to have a free market, available to American trade interests, making it impossible for Communist States to apply. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, this plan was extremely controversial. Soviet leaders saw it as dollar imperialism- a means by which the USA would gain control Europe for its own financial interests. Furthermore, there were many consequences to this plan. In response, Soviet Russia set up the Cominform which coordinated communist parties throughout Europe and Comecon which was the Soviet response to the Marshall plan- an organization set to coordinate the economies of communist countries. Finally, one of the most drastic impacts of both the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine is the Berlin Blockade which occurred from 1948 to 1949 in which a blockade was placed by Soviet troops on West-Berlin which was controlled by allied forces. Thus, it can be concluded that both the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine had underlying causes, and as some schools of thought claim, were used to satisfy the ulterior motives of Capitalist. However, it is also certain that both of these had an immense effect on the political scenario during the time period in which they were instituted and led to a significant increase in both tensions and mutual fear between the Eastern and Western powers. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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