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Why did the Communists win the Chinese Civil War?

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Introduction

Why did the communists win the Civil War? By Resa Ng The last phase of the Chinese Civil War lasted from 1945 to 1949. At the time, the CCP (Chinese Communist Party) led by Mao Zedong, and the GMD (Guomindang) led by Chiang Kai Shek were vying for the power to lead the whole of China. At first the GMD had the advantage. They had the support of the United States, who provided advanced weapons, financial aid, and were officially recognized by the rest of the world as the real government of China. Furthermore, they had the support of the wealthy upper classes. However, the CCP had the support of the common people in China, due to their communist ideology, and because the commoners could identify with the CCP. In October 1949, the CCP won the war and Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The CCP has the support of the majority of the population: the peasants, while the GDP had the support of the only upper classes. The morale of the CCP army was high whole the GDP army members did not even want to be there. The ideology of the CCP was that of equality, which appealed to the peasants, while the GDP had a relatively autoritarian rule that focused on the comfort and security of the upper classes. Finally the CCP was lead by a middle class peasant whom other peasants identified with, and who knew how to move the masses while the GDP was lead by a man with a military background without much of a knack for diplomacy or politics. ...read more.

Middle

An example of the soldiers' state within the CCP army is a quote from Edgar Snow, "There was very little difference in living quarters of commanders and men, and they passed freely back and forth without any formality."3 Because of the poor financial condition of the CCP, they treated each other with much less formality and with more respect. Also, the leaders of the CCP army made sure the troops had recreational activities except work, they had regular broadcast victories to keep the morale of the army high. A network of trust and support was built through these policies within the army, which was crucial for the guerrilla tactics employed later. These tactics were explained as thus, "... When the enemy tires, we attach, when the enemy retreats, we pursue." A historical event - the Long March in 1934, was an important strategic advantage for the CCP, although it was in effect a tactical defeat militarily as they lost many soldiers, this came with beneficial psychological and organizational effects. It boosted the morale within the army and undermined the GMD'S anti-communist propaganda of naming the Long March as the great retreat, but instead it strengthened the impression of the army as being highly determined, tenacious and courageous. These tactics were very clear and concise and helped bring strong determination within the army. In contrast with the CCP army, the GDP army was conscripted, and the basis of conscription was bribery and influence; it angered the poor and middle class that some of the rich never entered the army, thereby these soldiers held a grudge and didn't want to fight. ...read more.

Conclusion

He wasn't making the right decision and it shows that he wasn't fit to be a ruler, from what happened in Manchuria, it reflects how he couldn't see what was best for his troops, that the people in his hands are valuable lives, he'd rather risk the lives of millions in a bet. In conclusion, the belief that a government should exist not only for the people, but of and by them as well, was reiterated time and again, the CCP were wise enough to understand this and laid their tactical decisions with careful planning. There is no one single reason that led to the Chinese Communist Party coming to power In 1949; their success is one of great complexity but In my opinion I think that the most important stepping stone essential for the CCP's victory in the Chinese Civil War is the support of the peasantry, it is inconceivable that such a massive social transformation could not have occurred without the support of the cast majority of the peasantry in China and they are the ones who sided with the CCP when the CCP believed in equality for all and the CCP not only believed in it but implemented this equality. 1 1 Civil War in China, 1999,p.247 2 Wood John and McManus Andrew, 'China Revolutionary Leadership',1998, New Zealand, Macmillian Publishers New Zealand Limited, P.70 3 Edgar Snow, 1936 4 China shakes the world', J. Belden, 1949 5 C.P. Fitzgerald, 'Revolution in China', 1952 6 Mao Zedong, "selected works", 1927 Why did the Communists win the Chinese Civil War? By: Resa Ng 11JN Mr. Caves 1 ...read more.

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