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Why Germany Unified under Prussia and not Austria. Outline

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Introduction

´╗┐Why did Germany unify under Prussia and not Austria? 1) Economically powerful 2) Militarily advanced, 3) Politically Progressive/ Competent Political leadership Economic Policies: Powerhouse: Prussia debt 11%, Austria debt 26% -From putting down revolutions in 1830 and 1848 in Italian States and being defeated in Austro- Italian war, Austria had large military debts. 1. Zollverein 1818 : customs union 1. Ended internal tariffs, encouraged development and communication between the States; used a unified weights and measure system 1. Economic leader of the German Confederation; other states looked to Prussia economically 1. Austria didn?t remove internal tariffs until 1829; was excluded from Zollverein 2. Prussia had a strong economic base which gave to the opportunity to expand military 2) Population Increase 1. 87% of population increase, 2x Austria 1. Economically larger, larger work force?more workers for factories 3) Industrialization 1. Prussia had a booming steel production 1. Krupp Factory 1. Coal and Iron= Steel Production 1. Prussia had a booming economy and had the materials to create weaponry for war. 2. Austria= Agrarian, cotton production Analysis: Other German states looked to Prussia as the economic leader, Prussia?s ability to expand militarily (large economic base) ...read more.

Middle

Manipulates other leaders and out strategizes them 1. ex. Schleswig- Holstein Crisis: Bismarck successfully maneuvered Austria into allying with them to defeat Denmark as a ?German issue,? although Austria has no reason to take part (duchies are much further from Austria) 1. **** Outsmarts Rechburg of Austria 1. Bismarck pretends to support Duke of Augustenburg to avoid looking un-German and maintain Austria?s support 2. Bismarck really wants duchies for Prussia (not another German state), and he turns on both Augustenburg and Austria 1. 1865-1866: Bismarck meets with leaders of other foreign nations to secure neutrality and gain support for Prussia against a war with Austria 1. France 1865- Bismarck meets with Napoleon at Biarritz to assure French will stay neutral (hints Rhineland to Napoleon) 2. Italy-April 1865- Bismarck meets with Victor Emmanuel to make alliance against Austria 1. If there is war within the next 3 months, Italy will ally with Prussia in return for Venetia ***Diplomatically outmaneuvers Austria 1. Although Austria is political leader of German states, the leaders turn the S-H issue over to the German Diet instead of looking to the German states who supported Austria 1. ...read more.

Conclusion

Austrian soldiers were less educated and from different ethnicities: couldn?t read written manuals, didn?t speak the same language, couldn?t be commanded by one person 3. Austrian soldiers were less dedicated?different ethnicities and conscription 2) Developments 1. Needleguns vs. Muskets (5 shots in the time of 1) 2. Railroads: transport troops and weapons by train; owned 56% of railroads 1. Advanced weaponry; advanced way to transport troops; efficient 2. Austrians tools were outdated and less effective 3) Strong Army General Staff 1. Leadership: Moltka: Chief of Staff of war?very strategic 2. Studied maps, had war games and drills, practiced routines 3. Reorganized the military 1. Created a disciplined, smart army 4) Ethnic Make-Up 1. Prussia= all German, more unified 2. Austria= mix of nationalities (Slovs, Hungarians, Czechs), less unified 1. Disadvantage because of language conflict 2. Training manuals need to be in multiple languages 3. Made communication with army extremely difficult **When Aust Analysis: Prussia defeats Austria in war even though they are outnumbered as a result of the militarily advancements and the strong dominant leadership (Battle of Sadowa 1866) Military advancements allow them to defeat Austria and unify the Northern German states under Prussia. ...read more.

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