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Swedish. This paper examines the ideological differences between the two major political parties in The United States.

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Introduction

Amerikansk og politisk valgkamp SA-EN studieretningsopgave Astrid Ravn 2.c 21/3-2012 Amerikansk politik og valgkamp Navn: Astrid Ravn Skole: Vejen gymnasium og hf Afleveringsdato: 21 marts 2012 Abstract Today the term ideology is used in so many ways, that it is often difficult to know how to describe it. In some ways, the common, shared beliefs of a community may be considered its common sense ideology. This paper examines the ideological differences between the two major contemporary political parties in The United States - the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. Both parties have a monetary approach to policy, although the Republicans are more extreme and more ultra-liberal in their thinking. This study investigates moreover the two candidate’s individual use of linguistic and rhetorical elements in their convention speeches, and how this affects the receiver. Rhetoric is an art that aims to improve the facility of speakers or writers who attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. This property is one of Obama strengthens. Eventually contains the task a valuation of ‘’The Priest and the Warrior’’, by John Milton Cooper, in the U.S. presidential election of 2008. In relation to this theory McCain is shown as the warrior, while Obama appears as the priest. Indledning I USA fandt det 56. præsidentvalg sted d. 4. november 2008. Valget stod i mellem de to store partiers kandidater; John McCain fra Det Republikanske parti, og Barack Obama fra Det Demokratiske parti. Præsidentvalget i 2008 var på mange måder et både historisk og banebrydende valg da Obama, efter kun 2 år i senatet, valgte at stille op som præsidentkandidat. I brede kredse blev valget af Obama, og altså Amerikas første sorte præsident, udlagt som et tegn på at USA endelig havde lagt spørgsmålet om race bag sig, og han fik opbakning fra et bredt udsnit af befolkningen. [1] Men hvad var den egentlige grund til Obamas succes? ...read more.

Middle

McCain bruger mange anaforer til at udtrykke sine holdninger med; ’’I fight for Americans. I fight for you. I fight for Bill and Sue Nebe...[11]’’, og anaforer anvendes ofte som et retorisk kneb i taler og får sagen til at fylde mere i modtagerens bevidsthed, samtidig med at buskabet fremkommer mere slagkraftigt. Man kan genkendte anaforer fra Martin Luther Kings berømte tale, ’’I have a Dream’’, hvor han gentagende gange indleder sine sætninger med denne frase. Et andet retorisk virkemiddel McCain benytter sig af er antiteser. ’’I will open new markets to out goods and services. My opponent will close them. I will cut government spending. He will increase it’’.[12] Antiteser er gode at anvende hvis man vil trække modsætninger op, som fx ens eget synspunkt i en sag, i forhold til et andet. Man sætter en sag på ’’spidsen’’ ved sprogligt at sætte den ved siden af dens modsætning og dette bevirker at afsenderens, som i dette tilfælde er McCain, pointe tydeliggøres overfor modtagerene. McCain benytter flittigt de tre appelformer: logos, etos og patos. ’’I don’t mind a good fight. For reason known only God, I’ve had quite a few tough ones in my life’’[13], dette er et eksempel på etos. Etos betyder troværdighed og i denne sammenhæng er det den troværdighed McCain ønsker at udtrykke overfor publikum, så de derved køber hans argument. Et eksempel på appelformen logos, kan uddrages fra teksten.; ’’Doubling the child tax exemption from $3500 to $7000 will improve the lives of millions of American families’’. Logos, er appellen til fornuften og logikken. Et godt underbygget argument er logos appellerende, da den er intellektuel og knytter sig til argumentationen[14]. I denne sætning er det både fornuftigt- og logisk at hvis man fordobler barnets skatte fritagelse, vil det forbedre livet for amerikanske familier. Patos er appelformen der henvender sig til modtagerens følelser, og har den egenskab at kunne gøre tungere stof lettere modtageligt. ...read more.

Conclusion

Hvorimod krigeren, der her er McCain er mere direkte og eksplosiv i sin udtale. Konklusion Sproglig bevidsthed og demokrati hænger i en vis grad sammen. Det kræver stor omtanke at forme sproget, så det bliver spændende og fremkalder billeder og følelser hos modtageren. Barack Obamas succes, og valg som Amerikas præsident skyldes i høj grad hans retoriske evne til at forføre- og involvere publikum. Han appellerer bevidst til modtagerens rationelle og emotionelle side, og mens han samtidig ikke kun underbygger sine argumenter ved at appellere til vore følelser, formår han også at gøre det personligt. Med sine logiske og rationelle argumenter opnår han hurtigt et tillidsforhold til modtageren, samtidig med at han kommer til at fremstå mere overbevisende. Dette må siges at have en stor betydning i forhold til at blive valgt som præsident. Litteraturliste Tekstmateriale: 1. McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ (2008) 2. Obama, Barrack – ’’Democratic Convention Speech’’ (2008) Internetsider: 1. http://www.denstoredanske.dk/Rejser,_geografi_og_historie/USA_og_Nordamerika/USA_efter_1945/Barack_Hussein_Obama_Jr 2. http://andersstubkjaer.com/2010/04/forskelle-paa-det-demokratiske-og-det-republikanske-parti-i-usa/ 3. http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appelformerne 4. http://stilistik.wikispaces.com/Apostrofe 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_M._Cooper Dvd: 1. HBO documentary films - ‘’By the People: The Election of Barack Obama’’ Bilag 1: 1. https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Al4MIoCT8CUJ:rudar.ruc.dk/bitstream/1800/4435/4/Obama_samlet_medbilag_10_aug%255B1%255D.pdf+&hl=da&gl=dk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgT4J6Pczhorzas3cH_Vk_bIPV-QCccgknVNNq0rlT6EcTRuN9FyFhCtmDv2ub_sX9YZS7vf1h0uwVWzWNMTQpQA5N2HYcU_VDM_-aQIYzCGhq1BQS-dZRoIfHsXRzIySQSqG4j&sig=AHIEtbQ09id8zbXaQXgeVm-nf6CePo2Pjg ________________ [1]http://www.denstoredanske.dk/Rejser,_geografi_og_historie/USA_og_Nordamerika/USA_efter_1945/Barack_Hussein_Obama_Jr [2] http://andersstubkjaer.com/2010/04/forskelle-paa-det-demokratiske-og-det-republikanske-parti-i-usa/ [3] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 2 [4] Friisberg, Gregers(2009) – ’’Politik, ABC kernestof fra C til A-niveau’’ [5] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 1 [6] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 1 [7] Obama, Barack – ’’Democratic Convention Speech’’ s. 4-5 [8] Obama, Barack – ’’Democratic Convention Speech’’ s. 4 [9] Se bilag 1 [10] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 4 [11] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 1 [12] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 2 [13] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 1 [14] http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appelformerne [15] http://stilistik.wikispaces.com/Apostrofe [16] Obama, Barack – ’’Democratic Convention Speech’’ s. 1 [17] Obama, Barack – ’’Democratic Convention Speech’’ s. 3 [18] Obama, Barack – ’’Democratic Convention Speech’’ s. 4 [19] Obama, Barack – ’’Democratic Convention Speech’’ s. 7 [20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_M._Cooper [21] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 1 [22] McCain, John – ‘’Republican Convention Speech’’ s. 4 ...read more.

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