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Math Studies I.A

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

image00.png


Introduction

This mathematics project will be examining many countries’ life expectancy and GDP per capita and see which one is independent. Firstly, numbers that are of reliable resources from the internet will be found and will take the countries’ life expectancy and GDP per capita (PPP).

This experiment will be using correlation coefficient and the regression line to verify our results. Firstly, numbers will be taken from GDP per capita and overall life expectancy of both gender and using systemic sampling the data will be collected. The countries will only be collected at every odd  

My Null Hypothesis is that life expectancy is dependent to the country’s GDP whereas my Alternative Hypothesis is that life expectancy and GDP are independent. The countries will be chosen in systematic sample of every odd number from a list of countries from The World Fact Book (see page:0 ). Then, the overall average of both sexes will be taken by adding both men and women’s life expectancy and divided by 2, because I do not desire to see if GDP affects one of the sexes. Furthermore, the sex ratio of the total population will be looked at if there is much difference or not. Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. In addition, life expectancy only tells us the life expectancy of either male or female and by taking the average of both sexes one would have to take sex ratio into account or acknowledge that this can also cause some variations to the final result.

Then, xy, ,𝑦-2.,, 𝑥-2. will be calculated so to put it in the Pearson’s correlations coefficient formula (r ) and to get ,𝑟-2.. This will identify the strength of the relationship between the life expectancy and GDP per capita.

...read more.

Middle

213034

8410000

5396.3716

Yemen

2,400

62.5

150000

5760000

3906.25

Zimbabwe

200

39.5

7900

40000

1560.25

Total=

1707100

7914.39

130013258

51470030000

559261.8111

r = ,,𝑆-𝑥𝑦.-,,𝑆-𝑥  .𝑆-𝑦  ..

,𝑆-𝑥𝑦.=𝑥𝑦,,∑𝑥.,∑𝑦.-𝑛.

,𝑆-𝑥𝑦.is known as the covariance of X and Y.

,𝑆-𝑥  .= ,-∑,𝑥-2.−,,(∑𝑥)-2.-𝑛..

,𝑆-𝑥  .is called the standard deviation of X.

,𝑆-𝑦  .= ,-∑,𝑦-2.−,(∑,𝑦-2.)-𝑛..

,𝑆-𝑦  .is the standard deviation of Y.

r=,𝑥𝑦,,∑𝑥.,∑𝑦.-𝑛.-,-∑,𝑥-2.−,,(∑𝑥)-2.-𝑛..,-∑,𝑦-2.−,(∑,𝑦-2.)-𝑛...

So, r =,130013258−,,1707100.(7914.39)-115.-,-51470030000−,,(1707100)-2.-115..,-559261.8111−,,(7914.39)-2.-115...

=,12529300.01-161645.4262 ×120.7778847.

                = ,12529300.01-19523192.65.

                =0.6417649118
                
,𝑟-2.=0.4119

image03.png

Interpretation of Results

Possible explanation for outliners (errors)

Correlation does not mean that there is a relation in GDP per capita to life expectancy because countries with low life expectancy are usually with some form of crisis. One would rarely see these in the higher life expectancy countries. Therefore, outliers are from the developing countries that are not only low in GDP but also other factors affecting it, such as war, disease, ‘brain drain’, economy crisis and so on. Even though the low GDP may be a contributing factor to the problem mentioned the impact that these crisis have on the countries are more pronounced in the life expectancy compared to GDP alone.

This form of GDP is used because… overall life expectancy rather than life expectancy at birth is used because…

One can see that the outliers of life expectancy 30-50 years old are usually from the developing countries such as Afghanistan, Zimbabwe, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria and South Africa are of some trouble. For example,

Since the late 1970s Afghanistan has suffered continuous and brutal civil war in addition to foreign interventions in the form of the 1979 Soviet invasion and the 2001 U.S.-led invasion that toppled the Taliban government.

Following the September 11 attacks the United States launched Operation Enduring Freedom, a military campaign to destroy the Al-Qaeda terrorist training camps inside Afghanistan.

Zimbabwe is experiencing a severe hard-currency shortage, which has led to hyperinflation.

In 2002, Zimbabwe was suspended from the Commonwealth of Nations on charges of human rights abuses during the land redistribution and of election tampering.

Zimbabwe's current economic and food crisis, described by some observers as the country's worst humanitarian crisis since independence, has been attributed in varying degrees, to the government's price controls and land confiscations, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and a drought affecting the entire region.

Ethiopia has one of the fastest growing economies in the world, according to The Economist. Ethiopia has showed a fast growing annual GDP and it was the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007 and 2008.

Although the bloody border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea (1998-2000) and food crisis.

Nigeria

The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as 'brain drain' due to the fact that many highly skilled Nigerian doctors emigrate to North America and Europe. In 1995, It was estimated that 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practicing in the United States alone, which about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. Retaining these expensively-trained professionals has been identified as one of the goals of the government.

Swaziland

Like many subsaharan African countries Swaziland is severely affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic. In 2004, Swaziland acknowledged for the first time that it suffered an AIDS crisis, with 38.8% of tested pregnant women infected with HIV (see AIDS in Africa). Prime Minister Themba Dlamini declared a humanitarian crisis due to the combined effect of drought, land degradation, increased poverty, and HIV/AIDS.

Sudan

clashes occurred in the western region of Darfur in the early 1970s between the pastoral tribes.

In July 2007, many parts of the country were devastated by flooding,

First Sudanese Civil War 1955 – 1972

Second Sudanese Civil War 1983 - 2005

Botswana

Congo, Republic of the

Gabon

Guinea-Bissau

Kenya

Lesotho

Mozambique

Somalia

Tanzania

Uganda

All these countries have some form of crisis or history of crisis such as war internally or externally, “brain drain”, HIV/AIDS, extreme poverty, hyperinflation, economic crisis, food crisis due to economy of natural disasters, geological location of the country being not very productive and so on.

Validity

The choice of sampling is systemic sampling because it avoids human nature of emotion and bias. Other form of sampling such as simple random sampling, stratified sampling, convenience sampling and so on are not used. When simple random sampling is used human emotions can interfere while choosing countries, although one may say they chose it in random there is always some form of bias. Furthermore, while choosing randomness of selection can result in a sample that doesn’t reflect the makeup of population or unlucky error. Stratified sampling is not used because it is difficult to categorise countries based on any characteristics. Convenience sampling is not used as it is not very scientific or systematic and human emotion interference causing bias.

The assumption made is that there is a linear correlation. However, the value of r turns out to be not very strong. During the interpretation of results the weak correlation was partially explained by factors such as war, food shortage, economic crisis, epidemic of diseases, and so on. I addition, it could well be that there is a non linear correlation instead. Furthermore, this method is extremely difficult and hence unable to test it.

Sex ratio is used to find if there is a significant difference in either population. This is to keep the result as accurate as possible although it may vary the result a little as there is some difference in gender in most countries.

Reference

http://www.president.gov.af/

http://uk.oneworld.net/guides/zimbabwe/development

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2859.htm

http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=1229

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

http://www.gov.sz/

Human Development Index (HDI)

HDI uses GDP as a part of its calculation and then factors in indicators of life expectancy and education levels.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_domestic_product

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2004.html?countryCode=AF&rankAnchorRow=#AF (GDP? per capita (PPP))

http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/indwm/tab3a.htm (life expectancy)

http://www.photius.com/rankings/population/sex_ratio_total_population_2006_1.html (sex ratio)

http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics/faq/question,72,en.html (why GDP per capita (PPP))

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_life_expectancy

Country

GDP - per capita (PPP)

Afghanistan

$800 (2008 est.)
$700 (2007 est.)
$600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Albania

$6,000 (2008 est.)
$5,700 (2007 est.)
$5,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Algeria

$7,000 (2008 est.)
$6,900 (2007 est.)
$6,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

American Samoa

$8,000 (2007 est.)
$5,800 (2005 est.)

Andorra

$42,500 (2007)
$38,800 (2005)

Angola

$8,800 (2008 est.)
$7,900 (2007 est.)
$7,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Anguilla

$8,800 (2004 est.)

Antigua and Barbuda

$19,000 (2008 est.)
$18,900 (2007 est.)
$18,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Argentina

$14,200 (2008 est.)
$13,400 (2007 est.)
$12,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Armenia

$6,400 (2008 est.)
$5,900 (2007 est.)
$5,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Aruba

$21,800 (2004 est.)

Australia

$38,100 (2008 est.)
$37,700 (2007 est.)
$36,800 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Austria

$39,200 (2008 est.)
$39,500 (2007 est.)
$38,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Azerbaijan

$9,000 (2008 est.)
$8,100 (2007 est.)
$6,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Bahamas, The

$28,600 (2008 est.)
$28,300 (2007 est.)
$27,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Bahrain

$37,200 (2008 est.)
$35,500 (2007 est.)
$33,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Bangladesh

$1,500 (2008 est.)
$1,400 (2007 est.)
$1,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Barbados

$19,300 (2008 est.)
$19,100 (2007 est.)
$18,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Belarus

$11,800 (2008 est.)
$10,700 (2007 est.)
$9,900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Belgium

$37,500 (2008 est.)
$37,100 (2007 est.)
$36,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Belize

$8,600 (2008 est.)
$8,300 (2007 est.)
$8,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Benin

$1,500 (2008 est.)
$1,500 (2007 est.)
$1,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Bermuda

$69,900 (2004 est.)

Bhutan

$5,600 (2008 est.)
$4,800 (2007 est.)
$4,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Bolivia

$4,500 (2008 est.)
$4,300 (2007 est.)
$4,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Bosnia and Herzegovina

$6,500 (2008 est.)
$6,200 (2007 est.)
$5,900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Botswana

$13,300 (2008 est.)
$13,200 (2007 est.)
$13,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Brazil

$10,100 (2008 est.)
$9,800 (2007 est.)
$9,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

British Virgin Islands

$38,500 (2004 est.)

Brunei

$53,100 (2008 est.)
$53,700 (2007 est.)
$54,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Bulgaria

$12,900 (2008 est.)
$12,100 (2007 est.)
$11,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Burkina Faso

$1,200 (2008 est.)
$1,200 (2007 est.)
$1,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Burma

$1,200 (2008 est.)
$1,200 (2007 est.)
$1,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Burundi

$400 (2008 est.)
$400 (2007 est.)
$400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

Cambodia

$2,000 (2008 est.)

$1,900 (2007 est.)
$1,800 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Cameroon

$2,300 (2008 est.)
$2,300 (2007 est.)
$2,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Canada

$39,300 (2008 est.)
$39,400 (2007 est.)
$38,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Cape Verde

$3,800 (2008 est.)
$3,600 (2007 est.)
$3,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Cayman Islands

$43,800 (2004 est.)


Central African Republic

$700 (2008 est.)
$700 (2007 est.)
$700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Chad

$1,600 (2008 est.)
$1,600 (2007 est.)
$1,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Chile

$14,900 (2008 est.)
$14,500 (2007 est.)
$14,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


China

$6,000 (2008 est.)
$5,500 (2007 est.)
$4,900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Colombia

$8,900 (2008 est.)
$8,700 (2007 est.)
$8,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Comoros

$1,000 (2008 est.)
$1,000 (2007 est.)
$1,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Congo, Democratic Republic of the

$300 (2008 est.)
$300 (2007 est.)
$300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Congo, Republic of the

$4,000 (2008 est.)
$3,800 (2007 est.)
$4,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Cook Islands

$9,100 (2005 est.)


Costa Rica

$11,600 (2008 est.)
$11,400 (2007 est.)
$10,800 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Cote d'Ivoire

$1,700 (2008 est.)
$1,700 (2007 est.)
$1,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Croatia

$16,100 (2008 est.)
$15,700 (2007 est.)
$14,900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Cuba

$9,500 (2008 est.)
$9,100 (2007 est.)
$8,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Cyprus

$28,600 (2008 est.)
$27,800 (2007 est.)
$26,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Czech Republic

$26,100 (2008 est.)
$25,200 (2007 est.)
$23,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Denmark

$37,400 (2008 est.)
$37,700 (2007 est.)
$37,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Djibouti

$3,700 (2008 est.)
$3,600 (2007 est.)
$3,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Dominica

$9,900 (2008 est.)
$9,700 (2007 est.)
$9,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Dominican Republic

$8,100 (2008 est.)
$7,900 (2007 est.)
$7,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Ecuador

$7,500 (2008 est.)
$7,200 (2007 est.)
$7,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Egypt

$5,400 (2008 est.)
$5,200 (2007 est.)
$4,900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


El Salvador

$6,200 (2008 est.)
$6,100 (2007 est.)
$6,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Equatorial Guinea

$31,400 (2008 est.)
$29,000 (2007 est.)
$27,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Eritrea

$700 (2008 est.)
$700 (2007 est.)
$700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Estonia

$21,200 (2008 est.)
$21,800 (2007 est.)
$20,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Ethiopia

$800 (2008 est.)
$800 (2007 est.)
$700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


European Union

$33,400 (2008 est.)
$33,400 (2007 est.)
$32,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

$35,400 (2002 est.)


Faroe Islands

$31,000 (2001 est.)


Fiji

$3,900 (2008 est.)
$3,900 (2007 est.)
$4,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Finland

$37,200 (2008 est.)
$36,700 (2007 est.)
$35,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


France

$32,700 (2008 est.)
$33,300 (2007 est.)
$32,800 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


French Polynesia

$18,000 (2004 est.)
$17,500 (2003 est.)


Gabon

$14,400 (2008 est.)
$14,200 (2007 est.)
$13,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Gambia, The

$1,300 (2008 est.)
$1,300 (2007 est.)
$1,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Gaza Strip

$2,900 (2008 est.)
$1,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Georgia

$4,700 (2008 est.)
$4,500 (2007 est.)
$4,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Germany

$34,800 (2008 est.)
$34,900 (2007 est.)
$34,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Ghana

$1,500 (2008 est.)
$1,400 (2007 est.)
$1,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Gibraltar

$38,200 (2005 est.)
$27,900 (2000 est.)


Greece

$32,000 (2008 est.)
$31,200 (2007 est.)
$30,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Greenland

$20,000 (2001 est.)


Grenada

$13,400 (2008 est.)
$13,000 (2007 est.)
$12,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Guam

$15,000 (2005 est.)


Guatemala

$5,200 (2008 est.)
$5,100 (2007 est.)
$5,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Guernsey

$44,600 (2005)


Guinea

$1,100 (2008 est.)
$1,100 (2007 est.)
$1,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Guinea-Bissau

$600 (2008 est.)
$600 (2007 est.)
$600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Guyana

$3,900 (2008 est.)
$3,700 (2007 est.)
$3,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Haiti

$1,300 (2008 est.)
$1,300 (2007 est.)
$1,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Honduras

$4,400 (2008 est.)
$4,300 (2007 est.)
$4,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Hong Kong

$43,800 (2008 est.)
$42,900 (2007 est.)
$40,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Hungary

$19,800 (2008 est.)
$19,700 (2007 est.)
$19,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Iceland

$39,900 (2008 est.)
$41,700 (2007 est.)
$40,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


India

$2,800 (2008 est.)
$2,700 (2007 est.)
$2,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Indonesia

$3,900 (2008 est.)
$3,700 (2007 est.)
$3,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

<...read more.

Conclusion


note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Iran


Suriname

$8,900 (2008 est.)
$8,500 (2007 est.)
$8,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Swaziland

$5,100 (2008 est.)
$4,900 (2007 est.)
$4,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Sweden

$38,500 (2008 est.)
$38,300 (2007 est.)
$37,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Switzerland

$40,900 (2008 est.)
$41,000 (2007 est.)
$39,900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Syria

$4,800 (2008 est.)
$4,700 (2007 est.)
$4,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Taiwan

$31,900 (2008 est.)
$31,100 (2007 est.)
$29,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Tajikistan

$2,100 (2008 est.)
$1,700 (2007 est.)
$1,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Tanzania

$1,300 (2008 est.)
$1,300 (2007 est.)
$1,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Thailand

$8,500 (2008 est.)
$8,200 (2007 est.)
$7,900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Timor-Leste

$2,400 (2008 est.)
$2,400 (2007 est.)
$2,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Togo

$900 (2008 est.)
$900 (2007 est.)
$900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Tokelau

$1,000 (1993 est.)


Tonga

$4,600 (2008 est.)
$4,600 (2007 est.)
$4,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Trinidad and Tobago

$18,600 (2008 est.)
$22,700 (2007 est.)
$21,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Tunisia

$7,900 (2008 est.)
$7,600 (2007 est.)
$7,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Turkey

$12,000 (2008 est.)
$11,900 (2007 est.)
$11,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Turkmenistan

$6,100 (2008 est.)
$5,600 (2007 est.)
$5,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Turks and Caicos Islands

$11,500 (2002 est.)


Tuvalu

$1,600 (2002 est.)


Uganda

$1,100 (2008 est.)
$1,100 (2007 est.)
$1,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Ukraine

$6,900 (2008 est.)
$7,100 (2007 est.)
$6,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


United Arab Emirates

$40,000 (2008 est.)
$38,600 (2007 est.)
$37,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


United Kingdom

$36,600 (2008 est.)
$36,500 (2007 est.)
$35,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


United States

$47,000 (2008 est.)
$46,800 (2007 est.)
$46,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Uruguay

$12,200 (2008 est.)
$11,100 (2007 est.)
$10,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Uzbekistan

$2,600 (2008 est.)
$2,400 (2007 est.)
$2,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Vanuatu

$4,600 (2008 est.)
$4,400 (2007 est.)
$4,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Venezuela

$13,500 (2008 est.)
$13,100 (2007 est.)
$12,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Vietnam

$2,800 (2008 est.)
$2,700 (2007 est.)
$2,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Virgin Islands

$14,500 (2004 est.)


Wallis and Futuna

$3,800 (2004 est.)


West Bank

$2,900 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Western Sahara

$2,500 (2007 est.)



Yemen

$2,400 (2008 est.)
$2,400 (2007 est.)
$2,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Zambia

$1,500 (2008 est.)
$1,400 (2007 est.)
$1,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars


Zimbabwe

$200 (2008 est.)
$200 (2007 est.)
$200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

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