- Level: International Baccalaureate
- Subject: Maths
- Word count: 2906
Series and Induction
Extracts from this document...
Introduction
INTRODUCTION
The definition of sequence is a list of numbers written in a particular order. These numbers are called the terms of the sequence. For example, 2,4,6,8 are the first four terms of positive even integers. When the sum of the terms in a sequence is taken, we will get something called a series. For example, 2+4+6+8+… is a series. The terms in a sequence is denoted by Tn where n is the number of the term in question.
In my portfolio there are certain conventions used such as:
‘+’ denotes addition
‘–‘ denotes subtraction
‘x’ denotes multiplication
‘/’ denotes division
‘∑’ denotes summation
‘’ denotes equal to
OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS
Q1. Consider the sequence {an}∞n=1 where
a1 = 1 x 2
a2 = 2 x 3
a3 = 3 x 4
a4 = 4 x 5
.
.
.
Find an expression for an, the general term in the sequence.
A1.
Let p = 1
a1 = 1 x 2 = p(p+1)
a2 = 2 x 3 = (p+1)(p+2)
a3 = 3 x 4 = (p+2)(p+3)
a4 = 4 x 5 = (p+3)(p+4)
.
.
Thus,
an = (p+n-1)(p+n)
Since p = 1
Therefore,
an = n(n+1)
Q2. Consider the series Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 +…+ an where ak is defined as above.
(a). Determine several values of Sk, including S1, S2, S3, …, S6 and note observations.
(b). Formulate a conjecture for a general expression for Sn.
(c). Prove your conjecture by induction.
(d). Using the above result, calculate 12 + 22 + 32 + …+ n2.
A2.
(a).
Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + …………. + an
S1 = a1 = 1 x 2
= 2
S2 = a1 + a2 = (1 x 2) + (2 x 3)
= 2 + 6
= 8
S3 = a1 + a2 + a3 = (1 x 2) + (2 x 3) + (3 x 4)
= 2 + 6 + 12
= 20
S4 = a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 = (1 x 2) + (2 x 3) + (3 x 4) + (4 x 5)
= 2 + 6 + 12 + 20
= 40
S5 = a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 = (1 x 2) + (2 x 3) + (3 x 4) + (4 x 5) + (5 x 6)
= 2 + 6 + 12 + 20 + 30
= 70
S6 = a1
Middle
(b). Formulate a conjecture for a general expression for Tn.
(c). Prove your conjecture by induction.
(d). Using the above result, calculate 13 + 23 + 33 + …+ n3.
A3.
(a).
Tn = 1x2x3 + 2x3x4 + 3x4x5 +….+ n(n + 1)(n + 2)
T1 = 1 x 2 x 3
= 6
T2 = (1 x 2 x 3) + (2 x 3 x 4)
= 6 + 24
= 30
T3 = (1 x 2 x 3) + (2 x 3 x 4) + (3 x 4 x 5)
= 6 + 24 + 60
= 90
T4 = (1 x 2 x 3) + (2 x 3 x 4) + (3 x 4 x 5) + (4 x 5 x 6)
= 6 + 24 + 60 + 120
= 210
T5 = (1 x 2 x 3) + (2 x 3 x 4) + (3 x 4 x 5) + (4 x 5 x 6) + (5 x 6 x 7)
= 6 + 24 + 30 + 120 + 210
= 420
T6 = (1 x 2 x 3) + (2 x 3 x 4) + (3 x 4 x 5) + (4 x 5 x 6) + (5 x 6 x 7) + (6 x 7 x 8)
= 6 + 24 + 60 + 120 + 210 + 336
= 756
A graph between Tn and n showing how Tn changes with a change in n.
(b).
Tn = (1 x 2 x 3) + (2 x 3 x 4) + (3 x 4 x 5) +…+ n(n + 1)(n + 2)
Tn = ∑ n(n + 1)(n + 2)
= ∑ (n3 + 3n2 + 2n)
= ∑ n3 + 3∑ n2 + 2∑n
We know that n4 – (n-1)4 = n4 – n4 + 4n3 – 6n2 + 4n – 1
= 4n3 – 6n2 + 4n – 1
Thus,
14 – 04 = 4(1)3 – 6(1)2 + 4(1) – 1
24 – 14 = 4(2)3 – 6(2)2 + 4(2) – 1
34 – 24 = 4(3)3 – 6(3)2 + 4(3) – 1
.
.
.
+ n4 – (n-1)4 = 4(n)3 – 6(n)2 + 4(n) – 1
n4 – 04 = 4(13 + 23 +…+ n3) – 6(12 + 22 +…+ n2) + 4(1 + 2 +…+ n) – n
n4 = 4∑n3 – 6∑n2 + 4∑n – n
n4 = 4∑n3 – [6n(n + 1)(2n + 1)/6] + [4n(n + 1)/2] – n
n4 = 4∑n3 – [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)] + [2n(n + 1)] – n
∑n3 = [n4 + n + (2n3 + 3n2 + n) – (2n2 + 2n)]/4
= (n4 + n + 2n3 + 3n2 + n – 2n2 – 2n)/4
= (n4 + 2n3 + n2)/4
= [n2(n2 + 2n + 1)]/4
∑n3 = [n2(n + 1)2]/4
Hence,
Tn = ∑n3 + 3∑n2 + 2∑n
= [n2(n + 1)2/4] + [3n(n + 1)(2n + 1)/6] + [2n(n + 1)/2]
= [n2(n + 1)2/4] + [n(n + 1)(2n + 1)/2] + [n(n + 1)]
= [n2(n + 1)2 + 2n(n + 1)(2n + 1) + 4n(n + 1)]/4 (taking 4 as the LCM)
= n(n + 1)[n(n + 1) + 2(2n + 1) + 4]/4
= n(n + 1)(n2 + n + 4n + 2 + 4)/4
= n(n + 1)(n2 + 5n + 6)/4
= n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)/4
Tn = n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3)/4
(c).
1x2x3 + 2x3x4 + 3x4x5 +…+ n(n + 1)
Conclusion
k+1
Hence,
1k + 2k + 3k +…+ nk = nk+1+ [k(k+1)/2] ∑nk-1 – [k(k+1)(k-1)/6] ∑nk-2 +…. + n(-1)k+1
k+1
CONCLUSION
After going through my portfolio, I hope I have satisfied the basic needs required and have presented the portfolio well. I have learnt a lot of things while doing this investigation. Firstly, my knowledge about sequences and series have been broadened and I am now craving for more knowledge on general formulas of these sequences. There is a lot to learn from this portfolio. We can use the general formulas of Sn, Un and Tn in our everyday lives. We should observe the beauty of the portfolio, the beauty of the patterns, the way they progress at every stage. I was so inspired that I looked up on the internet for more methods to solve this portfolio. Infact I even studied the binomial theorem and the pascal’s triangle deeply as it interested me. While surfing on the internet I found something very interesting. The method I used to find the conjectures of Sn, Un and Tn has a name and is called the Telescopic Method.
REFERENCE:
http://www.xula.edu/math/Research/Colloquium/Past/Colloquium20030320-Paper-SahooP.pdf
http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath279.htm
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PowerSum.html
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BinomialTheorem.html
All graphs have been made with the help of Microsoft Excel 2003
All major calculations have been done with the help of Graphic Display Calculator TI-84 Plus.
[1]k+1C1 = (k+1)!/[(k+1-1)!x1!] = (k+1)k!/k! = k+1
k+1C2 = (k+1)!/[(k+1-2)!x2!] = k(k+1)(k-1)!/[(k-1)!x2] = k(k+1)/2
k+1C3 = (k+1)!/[(k+1-3)!x3!] = k(k+1)(k-1)(k-2)!/[(k-2)!x6] = k(k+1)(k-1)/6
This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Maths section.
Found what you're looking for?
- Start learning 29% faster today
- 150,000+ documents available
- Just £6.99 a month