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Exfoliation for NVQ level 2 beauty

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Task 3 - Exfoliants i) Which can be used ii) How to use them iii) Benefits and effects iv) Ingredients v) Examples vi) Appendices vii) Bibliography i) Which can be used and on what skin type? Before we can answer which should be used on a specific skin type, we need to first briefly cover the different types of exfoliants and exfoliating techniques that are available. Firstly there is mechanical exfoliation. This involves 'sloughing' off the dead skin cells of the Stratum Corneum and Stratum disjunctivum, using either a tool (e.g. a brush or a sponge etc...) or a substrate such as oatmeal or rice. Results will depend largely on what type of abrasive is used, and how much pressure is applied during exfoliation. The International Dermal Institute1 recommends that you avoid abrasives which can cause irritation i.e. crushed fruit stones or shells. These may actually be damaging layers further down in the epidermis, and irritation could lead to premature ageing2. Secondly we have chemical exfoliants. These include natural acids (or fruit enzymes) i.e. Papain (from green papayas) and Bromelain (from Pineapple), Hydroxy acids (often referred to as AHA [alpha hydroxyl acids] or BHA's [Beta Hydroxy Acids] and enzymes from bacillus ferment, a bacteria produced enzyme that aids digestion of the protein Keratin and speeds up the cell renewal rate. ...read more.


It is important to note that natural is not always better when it comes to facial scrubs. Many ingredients, in particular apricot seeds and crushed walnut shells are irregular in shape and may end up leaving small cuts on the surface of the skin. Although this might appear to leave a 'healthy glow', it is actually damaging to the skin, and not recommended. If you are intent on using a natural product, try to find one containing Jojoba beads, which are tiny spheres derived from the seeds of Jojoba plants. These are all uniform in size and shape and lessen the possibility of tearing the skin. Alternatively, opt for something like oatmeal, which will soften on contact with water and will be less likely to have sharp or rough edges. i.i.iii Combination Skin i.i.iv Sensitive Skin Sensitive skin is easily irritated by mechanical exfoliation, so I would recommend a gentle chemical exfoliation. At the American Academy of Dermatology meeting5 major dermatologists confirmed the benefits of beta hydroxy, salicylic acid products for improving the texture and appearance of skin. After reviewing full range of data collected, the dermatologists agreed that salicylic acid is a better-quality exfoliant that improves the appearance (in particular of aged, sun-damaged skin) without the irritation that can be caused by the more conventional alpha hydroxy, glycolic acid.6 Dr. ...read more.


This comodelytic effect is not exhibited any other type of chemical exfoliant. This makes it uniquely brilliant for aiding the clearing blocked pores in acne prone and congested skin. i.i.iv Hyperpigmentation i.i.v Roseacea ii) How to use them ii.i At home ii.ii In a salon iii) Benefits and effects Potential benefits of exfoliation include: o fresher, brighter looking skin o better penetration of active ingredients of skin care products o for people with oily skin, a degree of reduction in oil secretion o It is debatable whether exfoliation reduces file lines, but it generally does not improve significant wrinkles since its effects do not reach the dermis where wrinkles are formed. iv Ingredients Active ingredients in exfoliants include: o Abrasive Powders - Such as Baking soda. Found in Microdermabrasion and mechanical exfoliating products. o AHA's - Such as Glycolic Acid and Lactic Acid o Beads - Such as Man made Polyethylene beads or natural Jojoba beads. Found in mechanical exfoliants. o BHA's - Such as Salicyclic Acid. o Bio-exfoliants - Such as Bacillus Ferment. Enzymes that have a similar effect to AHA's. o Crystals - Such as Aluminium oxide crystals and 'diamondtome'. Used in Microdermabrasion. o Fruit Acids - Such as Citric Acid, Papain and Bromelain. Work in the same way as AHA's and Bio-exfoliants. o Grains - Such as oatmeal and rice. Found in mechanical exfoliants, these tend to soften in water and are gentle natural exfoliants. ...read more.

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