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Extended Essay: How do different Flavours, Storage Times affect the Effectiveness of Crisps as a Fuel?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How do different Flavours, Storage Temperatures and Storage Times affect the Effectiveness of a Crisp as a Fuel? Serena Yung Mr Geoffrey Lofthouse Word Count: 3061 Chemistry 2008 Abstract Noting the ever-increasing demand for bio-fuels, my curiosity had driven me to investigate if a particular type of food could serve this purpose. My first thought was noodles, yet these were amazingly difficult to light; I then tried burning bread, but equally unsuccessfully. In the end, I decided on an oily-not to mention delicious-food substance, crisps, as these would assumably make better fuels due to their great wealth of highly flammable oil. In effect, they burned easily with a strong flame. The more energy crisps release when burnt, the more effective they are as fuels. To begin, I investigated the flavour of crisp giving the highest energy value. Then, how different storage temperatures may affect these energy values. Lastly, how different storage times (in exposure to light and oxygen) might also affect these values. According to results, the "Calbee Curry flavour" appeared to release most energy (8868J/g), "Edo Hot Tomato" and "Jack and Jill Roasted Sausage flavour Mong Kok Style" the least (4208 and 4210 J/g respectively). Effectively these figures may suggest that Calbee Curry contained the highest fat content, whereas Edo and Jack and Jill contained the lowest. As for storage temperatures, there seems to be a general positive correlation of increasing energy values with increasing temperatures, however after 70'C the energy values dropped drastically. The strange resemblance of results to an enzyme graph may be linked to enzyme activity in relation to crisp energy values. Lastly, for storage time, there is a general negative correlation between time and energy values, which may be due to oxidation effects. Table of Contents Content Page Abstract 2 Introduction to Research Question 4 Experimental Method 5 Results 14 Conclusion 21 Evaluation 23 Works Cited 27 Appendix 29 Introduction to Research Context: A global demand for bio fuel has become increasingly noticeable. ...read more.

Middle

than all other samples For all samples exposed to air, some oil oozed out, so if they were placed on top of their labels, the permanent marker pen ink faded slightly Samples exposed to air were significantly softer, soggier and more moist than unexposed ones Control Variable Quantity or How Controlled General Volume of Water 100 ml Type of Water Tap water Distance of metal dish and copper calorimeter Used same stand so distance is unchanged anyway Flavour Storage Time Within one day, newly opened Storage Temperature Room: air conditioning set to 25'C Storage Temperature Storage Time Newly opened flavour of Crisp Pringles Sour Cream and Onion Storage Time Storage Temperature Room: air conditioning set to 25'C flavour of Crisp Pringles Sour Cream and Onion Table 2 Control Variables and How they are Controlled Results Notes: See calculations of "% error of enthalpy change" and "enthalpy change" after the final graph in this section ("Graph to show the different Enthalpy Changes (energy values) for the crisps' different Storage Times") Error Bars are not drawn as they are relatively insignificant Temperatures are measured initially in degrees Celsius, but later converted to Kelvins. What Energy Values will different Flavours of crisps Give? (Please see appendix for all raw data tables used to derive values in the following tables) Table 3 Showing Enthalpy Changes (energy values) for Different Flavours of Crisps Flavour Temperature Change (K) + 1 K Mass Change (g) (+ 0.01g) Enthalpy Change % Error of Enthalpy Change 1 2 3 Average 1 2 3 Average (J) (J/g) 0.04 Pringles 22 22 23 22 1.46 1.77 0.73 1.32 9280 7030 Jack and Jill 7 12 23 14 1.55 1.00 1.61 1.39 5852 4210 0.07 Edo 22 22 2 15.3 1.52 1.43 1.62 1.52 6395 4208 0.07 Calbee BBQ 19 17 17 17.7 1.55 1.29 0.46 1.10 7399 6726 0.05 Calbee Curry 10 27 10 15.7 1.02 0.58 1.19 0.74 6563 8868 0.03 Fig. ...read more.

Conclusion

For storage temperatures, I could experiment with 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100'C. As for storage times, I could investigate the effects after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 days. Finally I could test 10 different brands/flavours instead of five Doing this would show trends more clearly on the graphs. The metal dish should be weighed before burning, rather than after, so it would eliminate errors when removing leftover material. A damp cloth could be used to wrap all around the copper calorimeter, only exposing the thermometer. The cloth would help insulate and reduce heat loss. To stabilize the flame direction, I could use a fan to lightly blow the flame into always touching the bottom of the calorimeter. I could also ask a friend to help fan on the opposite side of me to make sure the flame is directed to the middle. The sample could be burnt in a tall tin can with the copper calorimeter and metal dish inside, so less heat escapes from between the calorimeter and dish. If I had time, I would have done all experiments on the school's set-up calorimeter than the homemade one, to avoid inaccuracies such as wax dripping on crisps. Reliability of Secondary Sources Facts on bio fuels: A number of articles from the Global Newsbank may be less reliable, as they are only newspapers, not professional scientific reports. However, the Encyclopedia Britannica one has more authority, so may be more reliable. Enthalpy Change Theory: Offered from my teacher's lesson notes. This should be quite a reliable source, as many different textbooks, encyclopedias, books and Internet pages mention the same formula. Oxidation theories: With the exception of one professional website and a consumer magazine, all other sources here should provide reliable information. They are either books, from Encyclopedia Britannica, a dictionary or a science magazine (New Scientist). Cross referencing also shows that antioxidant definitions and descriptions of their function are all the similar. ...read more.

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