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Infant feeding

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Assignment Title : Infant Feeding. P1 1. (i) In the case of a breast feeding mother, describe : (a) the preparations needed : Though breastfeeding is natural, technique is a learned skill. It is important to get started correctly, even before the baby is born. The mother needs to know well in advance how to identify and avoid possible problems, and where to turn if difficulties do arise. Many breastfeeding problems may occur when mothers establish their nursing patterns. With proper and prompt attention, the majority of these problems disappear as quickly as they develop. Education about the benefits and practice of breastfeeding are keys to optimal preparation. The local hospital may offer breastfeeding classes as part of the childbirth class, or mothers can join other breastfeeding support groups. These classes can put mothers in touch with a lactation specialist who may later be their personal breastfeeding consultant. These classes can also help mums to learn proper positioning and latch-on techniques. Mothers have to plan to learn as much as they can about breastfeeding. Mothers will be making an important investment in their baby's continued good health. An abundance of valuable reference material is available to help mums to get started. No specific physical preparation is necessary for optimal breastfeeding. General good health measures and adequate hydration are helpful measures. Most doctors recommend continuing basic prenatal vitamins while breastfeeding. As with any skill, the keys to successful breastfeeding are practice and patience. Mothers have to learn all they can and then surround themselves with people who will offer them the encouragement they need, be easy on themselves, relax and enjoy this special and wondrous experience. (b) the process : With your free hand, you have to put your thumb on top of your breast and your other fingers below. Don't touch your areola (the dark skin around your nipple). This is where your baby's lips will be. ...read more.

Middle

Bottles must then be filled with formula more or less straightaway. Sterilisation Microwave and electric sterilising have gained popularity in recent years. However, you may not always have access to electricity or a microwave, so it is worth being familiar with more traditional methods, such as boiling and cold water sterilising too. Steam sterilising Electric steam sterilising is based on hospital methods and is quick and efficient, taking eight to twelve minutes, plus cooling time. You must be careful that you only put in equipment that is safe to boil (some parts of breast pumps may not be boilable, for example). Bottles, teats and so on must be placed upside down to make sure they are fully sterilised. You can also buy steamers for microwaves but do take care that nothing metal is placed inside them. They take around five to eight minutes to work, plus cooling time. Be careful when removing the lid of steam sterilisers, as the inside can become very hot. Their main advantage is that there is no smell or taste involved and the items remain sterile for three hours if the lid is kept on. Boiling Another form of sterilising is boiling. Most bottle-feeding equipment needs to be boiled for at least 10 minutes. The pan you use must be used exclusively for that purpose and be warned that teats get sticky and unusable more quickly than with other methods. Microwavable bottles One innovation worth mentioning is bottles which can be sterilised in the microwave on their own. It takes just 90 seconds to sterilise a single bottle. Bottles must not be sealed during microwaving, because pressure could build inside them up during the heating process. Cold water sterilising This uses a non-toxic solution, such as Milton, which also comes in handy tablet form. The solution is highly effective against bacteria. It is safe to use and can be applied to the skin or even swallowed with no harmful effects. ...read more.

Conclusion

The baby's meals might therefore include, mashed potato, pureed meat, white fish, egg products, such as scrambled egg (as long as the infant shows no signs of allergic reaction, asthma) pasta, minced or mashed green vegetables as well as pieces of fruit such as banana and apple. When preparing foods for the baby mothers should also avoid adding additional flavours such as salt and sugar as babies can't cope with excess salt in food or sugar and do not need it. All food should be stored, handled and prepared hygienically to prevent germs and infection. (ii) In the case of older babies and young children (till 3 years): (a) describe their energy requirement: (b) the nutrients that must make up their diet: (c) the constituents of a balanced diet: (d) expanding the range of foods that are eaten: (e) potential effect of food additives: Childhood nutrition should be a balance between the high energy and nutrient content required for growth and development and establishing a healthy diet with weight control, in association with regular physical exercise. The balance between these two aspects changes from the very high fat content of infancy to the low fat, high fibre diet of adulthood. The diet for a child should be focused on natural, fresh sources of energy and nutrients. Drastic dieting and fad foods must be avoided. A positive attitude to healthy eating should be encouraged from an early stage. For Pre-school children : Children have a high energy requirement because they are growing quickly and becoming more active. They therefore require foods which are high in energy (as well as vitamins and minerals). Young children do not have large enough stomachs to cope with big meals and so should have small and frequent meals. The pre-school child should progress from the very high energy diet of infancy (with about 50% of total energy coming from fat) to the the diet for a five year old which should have much greater emphasis on a lower fat content (but still about 35% of energy from fat). ...read more.

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