• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Suspended Particulate Matter: a Primary Air Pollutant

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Jesse Ethier Dr. Warner AP Environmental 13 November 2007 Suspended Particulate Matter: a Primary Air Pollutant Suspended particulate matter, alternatively referred to as particulates, aerosols, or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in gas. Particulate matter, or PM, is the term for particles found in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Particles can be suspended in the air for long periods of time. Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen as soot or smoke. Others are so small that individually they can only be detected with an electron microscope. Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) pose a health concern because they can be inhaled into and accumulate in the respiratory system. Particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) are referred to as fine particles and are believed to pose the greatest health risks. ...read more.

Middle

The composition of suspended particulate matter depends on their sources. Wind-blown mineral dust tends to be made of mineral oxides and other material wind blown from the Earth's crusts. Sea salt consists mainly of sodium chloride originated from sea spray; other constituents of atmospheric sea salt reflect the composition of sea water. In addition, sea spray aerosols may contain organic compounds, which influence their chemistry. the smaller and lighter a particle is, the longer it will stay in the air. Also, larger particles tend to settle to the ground by gravity in a matter of hours where as the smallest particles can stay in the atmosphere for weeks and are mostly removed by precipitation. The most concentrated particulate matter pollution tends to be in densely populated metropolitan areas in developing countries. The primary cause is the extreme level of the burning of fossil fuels by transportation and industrial sources in these densely populated areas. ...read more.

Conclusion

There is also some evidence that particles smaller than 100 nanometers can pass through cell membranes which could potentially cause damage to the brain. It has been suggested that particulate matter can cause similar brain damage as that found in Alzheimer patients. The large number of deaths and other health problems associated with particulate pollution was first demonstrated in the early 1970's and has been reproduced many times since. Particulate matter pollution is estimated to cause 22,000-25,000 deaths per year in the United States. Many technologies and industrial processes have been created to attempt to reduce suspended particulate matters. BlueTec is a technology developed to reduce particulate emissions from diesel engines in order to meet the stringent Californian standards. BlueTec is Daimler AG's name for its two nitrogen oxide reducing systems, for use in their Diesel automobile engines. One is a urea-based reluctant, the other is called DeNOx and uses an oxidizing catalytic converter and particulate filter combined with other nitrogen oxide reducing systems. Both systems were designed to reduce pollutant emissions. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Misc section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Misc essays

  1. Extended Essay: How do different Flavours, Storage Times affect the Effectiveness of Crisps as ...

    less than 1 day, will be the best fuel-gives off most energy. However, we have only assumed that the Pringles Sour Cream and Onion crisps' results for storage temperature and storage time can generalize to all flavours of crisps. Therefore, the conclusion may not offer a very accurate trend for

  2. ITGS portfolio Privacy and security issues that arise when using Health Information Technology to ...

    inoculations, previous illnesses and medications. (3) EMRs make health care cost-efficient by consolidating all data in one place. Previously, paper-based records are located in different places and getting access to all of them takes a lot of time and money.

  1. Tainting the World's Greatest Spectacle

    composition of erythrocytes in the blood.4 As in many sporting events such as swimming, cycling and long-distance running, the ability to perform well is dependent on the body's ability to uptake oxygen and delivering it to the respiring muscle cells for cellular respiration to take place.

  2. Community Health

    What is wellbeing? These are all the facilities that make our community a better place and are needed for a sense of well-being: Fundamental services, gas, electricity, water, sewage Travel networks, roads and rail Hospitals, police stations, fire stations Rural awareness, city awareness Education and employment opportunities Leisure facilities, parks, swimming pools Access to shops, post offices, banks etc.

  1. According to the standards within the Ln Yu, has the Confucian gentleman survived to ...

    In ancient China, circa 500 B.C, there lived a man who was known as "the first teacher", K'ung Fu - tze, or more commonly known in English as Confucius (circa 551-479 BC), a wise man regarded as a famous sage and a social philosopher.

  2. An examination of applicability of IT based education within present secondary school curriculum

    In a LAN each computer and networked peripheral acts as an individual node on a network. These nodes are in turn connected to hubs or switches; they allow any node on the network to communicate with other nodes. A hub or switch could be used to transmit data to devices on the network.

  1. Information Technology in a Global Society - Is integrity a difficulty when students use ...

    PHP code is processed by an interpreter application in command-line mode performing desired operating system operations and producing program output on its standard output channel. It may also function as a graphical application. PHP is available as a processor for most modern web servers.

  2. A comparison and analysis of the speed and efficiency between Microsofts Windows XP and ...

    After the user hits the 'Shutdown' button, a 'quit application' command is sent to all running applications, which further save settings and finally disconnect power source. 9 Like the startup processes, the number of overall processes during shutdown in the Mac are much less compared to Windows XP.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work