• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Suspended Particulate Matter: a Primary Air Pollutant

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Jesse Ethier Dr. Warner AP Environmental 13 November 2007 Suspended Particulate Matter: a Primary Air Pollutant Suspended particulate matter, alternatively referred to as particulates, aerosols, or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in gas. Particulate matter, or PM, is the term for particles found in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Particles can be suspended in the air for long periods of time. Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen as soot or smoke. Others are so small that individually they can only be detected with an electron microscope. Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) pose a health concern because they can be inhaled into and accumulate in the respiratory system. Particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) are referred to as fine particles and are believed to pose the greatest health risks. ...read more.

Middle

The composition of suspended particulate matter depends on their sources. Wind-blown mineral dust tends to be made of mineral oxides and other material wind blown from the Earth's crusts. Sea salt consists mainly of sodium chloride originated from sea spray; other constituents of atmospheric sea salt reflect the composition of sea water. In addition, sea spray aerosols may contain organic compounds, which influence their chemistry. the smaller and lighter a particle is, the longer it will stay in the air. Also, larger particles tend to settle to the ground by gravity in a matter of hours where as the smallest particles can stay in the atmosphere for weeks and are mostly removed by precipitation. The most concentrated particulate matter pollution tends to be in densely populated metropolitan areas in developing countries. The primary cause is the extreme level of the burning of fossil fuels by transportation and industrial sources in these densely populated areas. ...read more.

Conclusion

There is also some evidence that particles smaller than 100 nanometers can pass through cell membranes which could potentially cause damage to the brain. It has been suggested that particulate matter can cause similar brain damage as that found in Alzheimer patients. The large number of deaths and other health problems associated with particulate pollution was first demonstrated in the early 1970's and has been reproduced many times since. Particulate matter pollution is estimated to cause 22,000-25,000 deaths per year in the United States. Many technologies and industrial processes have been created to attempt to reduce suspended particulate matters. BlueTec is a technology developed to reduce particulate emissions from diesel engines in order to meet the stringent Californian standards. BlueTec is Daimler AG's name for its two nitrogen oxide reducing systems, for use in their Diesel automobile engines. One is a urea-based reluctant, the other is called DeNOx and uses an oxidizing catalytic converter and particulate filter combined with other nitrogen oxide reducing systems. Both systems were designed to reduce pollutant emissions. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Misc section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Misc essays

  1. Extended Essay: How do different Flavours, Storage Times affect the Effectiveness of Crisps as ...

    the crisps very likely contain these preservatives too in their vegetable oil (ingredient in food label). Referring back to the research question, we find that crisps stored at about 70'C and stored for the least amount of time (exposure to air), e.g.

  2. Community Health

    Times * Various Phone Helplines Nottinghamshire & Nottingham Lesbian and Gay switchboard being the nearest See Appendix 14 In brief a community is a group of people with the same views and values as each other. There are lots of different types of community but in this report I am going to discuss a geographic community.

  1. ITGS portfolio Privacy and security issues that arise when using Health Information Technology to ...

    to telephone books, are digitized and stored in a central location for easy access. The idea of EMRs started about 40 years ago. The main proponents of EMRs cite the following advantages: (1) The use of EHRs supposedly reduces errors in medical records.

  2. A comparison and analysis of the speed and efficiency between Microsofts Windows XP and ...

    The RAM will provide multitasking with ease and FSB will bring time saving startups and shutdowns. The Intel Core Duo chip would become the backbone to ease and efficiency in the system. Some might consider downloading the Safari. For users who would require 'heavy' use of the system, from regular

  1. Information Technology in a Global Society - Is integrity a difficulty when students use ...

    Its products are evil and its logo is a kitten. Also if you were on Abraham Lincoln's page, it sates that he was married to Brayson Kondracki, his birth date is March 14 and Pete likes PANCAKES.

  2. An examination of applicability of IT based education within present secondary school curriculum

    However, a hub only allows one message to be transmitted across a LAN at a time, contrary to a switch which can send several. Although physical cabling has been used in the past, the latest trends are definitely for wireless networks (Beekman & Quinn, 2008).

  1. According to the standards within the Ln Yu, has the Confucian gentleman survived to ...

    Over the millennia people have evolved in a way beyond the basics of physical aspects and have reached levels of insight that have spread over many regions, that which are withheld and respected; an example of this is the makings of man.

  2. GCSE Welsh Baccalaureate Completed Diary Pages

    Class A drugs (like ecstasy, LSD and heroin) are the most serious drugs holding a 7 year prison sentence and/or an unlimited fine for possession whereas the penalty for dealing class A drugs is life imprisonment and/or an unlimited fine.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work