• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Suspended Particulate Matter: a Primary Air Pollutant

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Jesse Ethier Dr. Warner AP Environmental 13 November 2007 Suspended Particulate Matter: a Primary Air Pollutant Suspended particulate matter, alternatively referred to as particulates, aerosols, or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in gas. Particulate matter, or PM, is the term for particles found in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Particles can be suspended in the air for long periods of time. Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen as soot or smoke. Others are so small that individually they can only be detected with an electron microscope. Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) pose a health concern because they can be inhaled into and accumulate in the respiratory system. Particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) are referred to as fine particles and are believed to pose the greatest health risks. ...read more.

Middle

The composition of suspended particulate matter depends on their sources. Wind-blown mineral dust tends to be made of mineral oxides and other material wind blown from the Earth's crusts. Sea salt consists mainly of sodium chloride originated from sea spray; other constituents of atmospheric sea salt reflect the composition of sea water. In addition, sea spray aerosols may contain organic compounds, which influence their chemistry. the smaller and lighter a particle is, the longer it will stay in the air. Also, larger particles tend to settle to the ground by gravity in a matter of hours where as the smallest particles can stay in the atmosphere for weeks and are mostly removed by precipitation. The most concentrated particulate matter pollution tends to be in densely populated metropolitan areas in developing countries. The primary cause is the extreme level of the burning of fossil fuels by transportation and industrial sources in these densely populated areas. ...read more.

Conclusion

There is also some evidence that particles smaller than 100 nanometers can pass through cell membranes which could potentially cause damage to the brain. It has been suggested that particulate matter can cause similar brain damage as that found in Alzheimer patients. The large number of deaths and other health problems associated with particulate pollution was first demonstrated in the early 1970's and has been reproduced many times since. Particulate matter pollution is estimated to cause 22,000-25,000 deaths per year in the United States. Many technologies and industrial processes have been created to attempt to reduce suspended particulate matters. BlueTec is a technology developed to reduce particulate emissions from diesel engines in order to meet the stringent Californian standards. BlueTec is Daimler AG's name for its two nitrogen oxide reducing systems, for use in their Diesel automobile engines. One is a urea-based reluctant, the other is called DeNOx and uses an oxidizing catalytic converter and particulate filter combined with other nitrogen oxide reducing systems. Both systems were designed to reduce pollutant emissions. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Misc section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Misc essays

  1. Extended Essay: How do different Flavours, Storage Times affect the Effectiveness of Crisps as ...

    less than 1 day, will be the best fuel-gives off most energy. However, we have only assumed that the Pringles Sour Cream and Onion crisps' results for storage temperature and storage time can generalize to all flavours of crisps. Therefore, the conclusion may not offer a very accurate trend for

  2. ITGS portfolio Privacy and security issues that arise when using Health Information Technology to ...

    In a systematic review, Kripalani et al. evaluated the communication transfer between primary care physicians and hospital-based physicians and found significant deficits in medical information exchange. The review recommended the use of EMRs to resolve these issues and facilitate the continuity of care before, during and after hospitalization.

  1. Tainting the World's Greatest Spectacle

    There is constant suspicion, and conspiracy over "doping" that surrounds the sporting realm and every successful athlete involved. Those competitors in each sport who do not take performance-enhancing drugs see themselves as being disadvantaged as most of these drugs taken by athletes cannot be tested for, and in those cases

  2. An examination of applicability of IT based education within present secondary school curriculum

    This initiative will however question the government as to its position regarding the education system. Will it continue with the present elitist system or will the holistic education system prime? This is especially so as two dynamics will occur. Firstly, this pilot project is scheduled to be repeated in other

  1. According to the standards within the Ln Yu, has the Confucian gentleman survived to ...

    In ancient China, circa 500 B.C, there lived a man who was known as "the first teacher", K'ung Fu - tze, or more commonly known in English as Confucius (circa 551-479 BC), a wise man regarded as a famous sage and a social philosopher.

  2. A comparison and analysis of the speed and efficiency between Microsofts Windows XP and ...

    test results for CD Burning speed The stopwatch was started as soon as the 'Burn' button was clicked and then stopped when the message box saying 'Completed!' popped up. Figure 5 shows the results for the test, the XP took a small but apparent lead by burning the files in

  1. Community Health

    As well as emphasising health in a positive sense, this definition is significant in stressing mental as well as physical aspects of health, and social as well as individual well-being. It has however been criticised for being Utopian, whereas it should perhaps be viewed as an ideal towards which health care and other social actions may be orientated (Twaddle, 1974)

  2. GCSE Welsh Baccalaureate Completed Diary Pages

    As we can see, all of these are advantages of a multicultural society; however, there a still disadvantages with living in a multicultural society. It can inevitably lead to the loss of the interface between individual cultures, meaning many smaller cultures may become overwritten, losing their identity.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work