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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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Meet our team of inspirational teachers Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents • Marked by Teachers essays 2
1.  ## Investigating the factors related to the crater formed by a falling object.

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As a result, the force of impact of the ball on the surface will increase because all the potential energy will be changed into kinetic energy (velocity) of the ball just before its impact on the sand. This increase in the force of impact will move more sand sideways and downwards resulting in the formation of a bigger bowl shaped crater, hence the increase in diameter. Variables * The independent variable is the drop height of the ball. * The dependent variable is the diameter of the crater formed by the impact of the ball on the sand.

• Word count: 673
2. ## Specific Heat Capacity Lab data and processing

?T= �0.1�C initial final change Aluminum block 62.3 16.2 Aluminum calorimeter 46.5 - - - Aluminum Calorimeter w/ water 156.5 19.7 16.2 -03.5 water 114.0 - - - Calculate Initial Temperature of Aluminum block: Q gained by block = Q lost by water + Q lost by Al calorimeter 0.0623(910)(16.2-T)=.114(4200)(03.5)+.0465(910)(03.5) 918.427-56.963(T) =1675.8 + 148.1025 T = -15.9�C Percentage difference: Calculated and Actual Specific Heat Capacity Metal Calculated SHC c / JKg-1�C-1 Actual SHC c / JKg-1�C-1 % difference Object 1 370.9 Iron- 450 17.6 Object 2 625.6 Aluminum- 910 31.3 Object 3 318.9 Copper- 385 17.2 Sample Calculations: Conclusion: The specific heat capacity of object one which was Iron was calculated to be 370.9 J/Kg/�C.

• Word count: 944
3. ## Precision Lab. Question: What is the density of 2 unknown liquids, and how precise are the measurements used to make the calculations?

Materials: * 2 unknown liquids: one blue and one green. * A liquid of known density: ethyl alcohol. * A 100 mL graduated cylinder * A balance * 2 250 mL beakers Method: 1. Put each unknown liquid into a beaker. 2. Bring the beakers to your workstation. 3. Put the empty graduated cylinder onto the balance, and tare it. 4. Pour 10 mL of one unknown liquid into the graduated cylinder. 5. Weigh the graduated cylinder. 6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until 50 mL have been poured and weighed.

• Word count: 733
4. ## Experiment to measure the speed of sound in a resonance tube

Processed Data Resonating Length (cm) �0.5 Resonating Length (m) Resonating Length uncertainty (m) 33 0.33 0.002 29.5 0.295 0.01 26.5 0.265 0.01 22.1 0.221 0.004 19.9 0.199 0.01 17.7 0.177 0.01 16.5 0.165 0.01 l= observed resonating length L= corrected resonating length Diameter of tube= 3.54 cm Radius= 3.54/2 = 1.77cm End-Correction= 0.6 x r =0.6 x 0.0177 =0.01062 L = (l+e) �0.005 (m) 1/L (1/m) 0.34062 2.93 0.30562 3.27 0.27562 3.62 0.23162 4.31 0.20962 4.77 0.18762 5.32 0.17562 5.69 The slope of the graph is 0.01075 To find the average speed , 1/slope x 4 = (1/0.01075)

• Word count: 735
5. ## EMF and Internal Resistance of a cell

Because the equation is now in the format y = mx + c, we know that E will be the y-intercept value, and -r will be the gradient. I plotted three sets of data for current and voltage: my original results, the values including uncertainties that would give the largest values of E and -r, and the values including uncertainties that would give the smallest values of E and -r.

• Word count: 567
6. ## The aim of this experiment is to find out if a steaming cup of coffee stays warm longer when leaving it untouched, or pouring cold milk into it

First of all the coffee has to be made. Pour some water in the large beaker and heat it using the Bunsen burner. Once the water is boiling sprinkle the coffee powder into the beaker and stir it until the coffee is made. 2. Now pour equal amounts of coffee into the beakers A and B, and place a thermometer in each beaker. Set the stopwatch on zero and start recording the time. Record the temperature of each beaker. 3. Pour the milk into beaker A and stir the liquids for a short amount of time.

• Word count: 647
7. ## Physics lab on calculation of copper density using different equipment

This in turn would give me the density. I started the experiment by measuring the diameter of the wire, using the micrometer screw gauge. Before starting the measurement I checked for an error in the screw gauge. My gauge had a 0.002 cm positive error, which I had to subtract from my readings. I put the wire in the clamp of the gauge and tightened it, then I took note of the reading on the circular scale. I repeated this four more times (to get an accurate answer), then subtracted 0.002cm from each of the reading and then took an average of all the readings giving me the true value of the diameter of the wire.

• Word count: 576
8. ## Determine the spring constant of a vertical spiral spring in simple harmonic motion using Hookes law.

Materials: - Test Spring (Manufacture Unknown, Weight Resistance Unknown) - Standard Lab Retort Stand - Meter Stick (used for measuring the oscillation of spring) 100.00 �0.05 cm - A set of 100.0 �0.2g Standard test masses (Used to manipulate spring oscillation.) Variables: - Manipulated Variable: Mass Added The mass added will be kept at a constant increase of 100g per trial; each 100g mass will be hooked on to the mass bottom of the previous mass. - Responding Variable: Spring Oscillation The increase in the oscillation of the spring will be measured by a stationary meter stick placed vertically beside

• Word count: 692
9. ## An investigation into the bending of a cantilever beam and an attempt to determine the mathematical concepts involved.

There are forces that act on the beam these have been called F1, F2, F3. The depression of the cantilever is given by: x = Kln * Where x is the value of depression. l is the normal straight length of the beam, and k is the proportionality constant. The following equation can be obtained from the above one. ln1 = lnx + lnk Procedure * A depression of 20cm is required, which is why you have to find a weight which will cause this successfully.

• Word count: 424
10. ## Physics Lab Report. Aim: To find out how a light dependent resistor is affected by light intensity.

Voltmeter 5. Wires 6. Light Sensor 7. Logger Pro 8. Laptop 9. Power Supply Method: 1. Connect up all the wires in order to the resistor and the power supply. Connect the voltmeter to the resistor in series. Attach the light bulb to a socket and put the light bulb facing downwards on the clamp stand. 2. Put the power supply and the light bulb on. Connect the logger pro to the laptop and the light sensor to the logger pro and turn the software on. 3. Put the light sensor and the resistor the same distance away from the bulb.

• Word count: 825
11. ## Physics lab - Cantilever Beam

On top of this, if we do not know what the value of n is. So, we take logs of both sides of the equation. The equation below has used natural logarithms: ln () = ln ( ln () = ln () + ln () ln () = ln () + ln () This is now in the same form as the equation for a straight-line: Thus, if we plot ln () on the y-axis and ln () on the x-axis we will get a straight-line graph. The gradient will be equal to. The y-intercept will be equal to ln ()

• Word count: 849
12. ## This experiment is going to consist of using a book as a capacitor.Research question How does the amount of pages between the aluminum foil (x) affect the amount of charge/farads (y) the book can hold?

It just holds it. This experiment is going to consist of using a book as a capacitor. Research question How does the amount of pages between the aluminum foil (x) affect the amount of charge/farads (y) the book can hold? Independent Variables: The number of pages between the aluminum foil Dependent Variables: The number of farads/ amount of charge the book holds Control Variables: The book, the cables, and the environment Hypothesis By adding more pages between the foils the amount of charge the book can hold should increase because the volume increases between the foils.

• Word count: 550
13. ## Beer Foam IA

6.90 40 6.70 7.60 6.60 45 6.50 7.50 6.40 50 6.30 7.40 6.10 55 6.10 7.20 5.90 60 5.80 7.00 5.70 65 5.60 6.85 5.50 70 5.40 6.50 5.40 75 5.20 6.20 5.10 80 5.00 5.90 4.90 85 4.60 5.60 4.50 90 4.40 5.30 4.20 95 3.90 4.60 3.70 100 3.20 3.90 3.10 105 2.30 3.00 2.30 110 1.50 2.00 1.60 115 1.20 1.00 1.10 120 0.00 0.00 0.00 Now, we must calculate the average amount of foam, the uncertainty in the amount of foam and the natural log of the average amount of foam.

• Word count: 667
14. ## Physics Lab

Obtain the picture of the planet Uranus that has all its moons and its orbits 2. Measure the radius from the center of Uranus to the moon's orbit on the x and y direction 3. Find the average of the radius in the x and y direction and multiply the answer by 1000 to go from cm to m 4.

• Word count: 464
15. ## Physics lab - Calculating the Specific Heat Capacity of Water

46.0 840.00 46.3 870.00 46.5 900.00 46.8 930.00 47.1 960.00 47.3 990.00 47.6 1020.00 47.8 1050.00 48.1 1080.00 48.4 1110.00 48.6 1140.00 48.9 1170.00 49.1 1200.00 49.4 PROCESSING Calculating the values for Temperature in Kelvin: Temperature (K) = Temperature (oC) +273 Temperature values (K) Temperature (T) / K (� 0.1) K 313.0 313.2 313.4 313.6 313.8 314.0 314.2 314.4 314.6 314.8 315.1 315.3 315.5 315.7 315.9 316.1 316.3 316.5 316.7 316.9 317.2 317.5 317.7 318.0 318.2 318.5 318.8 319.0 319.3 319.5 319.8 320.1 320.3 320.6 320.8 321.1 321.4 321.6 321.9 322.1 322.4 Calculating values for Change in Temperature Change in Temperature (?T)

• Word count: 776
16. ## ib physics design lab

gets converted in KE (kinetic energy).When the height at which the ball is dropped is increased it simply means that the stored G.P.E of the ball increased too. Which implies more GPE is being converted to more K.E as soon as the ball hits the surface. And the more K.E. Possessed by the ball at that particular moment the more of it got transferred into E.P.E ( Elastic potential energy) and back to K.E. In the end the more K.E that leaves from the ground -the higher the ball bounces and the longer it takes to stop due to gravity.

• Word count: 963
17. ## Mr. Smiths Apartment

This means that the speed of which the heat in his apartment transfers is too big. To solve Mr. Smith's problem, it is my task to figure out how to improve the insulation of the apartment. In his apartment heat is being transferred through his windows, walls, floor and roof. Mr. Smith's apartment is situated in a fairly old building. This means that his windows are most likely single-paned windows. These windows are excellent conductors of heat, hence the fact that they are poor insulators. In the wintertime, inadequately insulated windows are to blame for 15-35% of heat loss.

• Word count: 932
18. ## IB Lab Measuring g with a Pendulum Model Answer

two equally acceptable methods: First Method Double the relative uncertainty for period, using the equation: e.g. for l = 0.100 � 0.005 m, T = 0.69 � 0.04 s: ?(T2) = 0.48 x 2 x 0.04/0.69 = 0.055652 � 0.06 (to 1 sig. fig.) Second Method Find the maximum and minimum values of period squared, take the difference and divide by two. e.g. for l = 0.100 � 0.005 m, T = 0.69 � 0.04 s: T2 = 0.692 = 0.4761 Tmax = (0.69 + 0.04)2 = 0.5329 Tmin = (0.69 - 0.04)2 = 0.4225 So ?(T2)

• Word count: 616
19. ## Torsional Pendulum Design Lab

Also include a hypothesis and a sketch graph of what you think will happen. The above information was given to the student by the instructor. What follows immediately below is the student's own work. Research Question: How can increasing the number of rubber bands increase the time of rotation? Variables: 1. Independent Variables: -The number of rubber bands 2. Dependent Variables: -Time the rotational pendulum to make a complete rotation 3. Controlled Variable: -The number of rotations made before the rotational pendulum is released -The weight of the pendulum -The length of the ruler -The devices that is attached to both

• Word count: 586
20. ## Design a procedure to test a factor(s) that affects a falling coffee filter and that includes appropriate use of apparatus for the control, collection and analysis of data.

This procedure should include the following sections. * Defining the Problem and selecting variables: * Controlling the Variables: * Developing a method for collecting data: The above information was given to the student by the instructor. What follows immediately below is the student's own work. Problem: When an object is released from rest, it initially experiences no drag force. As it falls, its speed increases and so does the force of air resistance acting on it. Eventually, the drag force is as large as the force of gravity and then the net force acting on the object is zero.

• Word count: 750
21. ## You may be very familiar with swinging pendulums and the variables that do and do not affect. In this design lab, you will learn about how a torsional (twisting) pendulum works.

Hypothesis: As number of coins on the ruler increases, the time to complete one period will also increase. This is because it takes more force to move a heavier mass. Because the simple equation of circular motion is , the distance between coin and center of mass (radius) is kept constant, and the amount of initial force applied to the ruler (the number of twists and rubber bands) is kept as constant as possible throughout the lab, as mass increases, velocity must decrease; this will increase the time for each period.

• Word count: 965
22. ## Research question: How does the time (T) it takes to complete a swing of a pendulum depend on the length of the string (x)?

-Angle of releasing the pendulum Apparatus used: 2 Stands 3 Clamps 3 Boss heads 1 Protractor 1 String 1 Pendulum 1 Ruler 1 Data-logger 2 Wooden clamps 1 Timer Method: Measuring the variables: To measure the length of the string, it is better to use a long, straight ruler to obtain the data; we should straighten the string and then put it besides the ruler.

• Word count: 488
23. ## Space exploration and society

Going on other planets helps us to make more conclusions on the structure of the earth and it's atmosphere. The over-reacting greenhouse effect only was discovered after humans were able to break out of the atmosphere. Space exploration has brought up a lot of things we now use in our daily life. Watching TV is now directed by satellites. GPS (Global Positioning System), weather stations are also. Going to space has helped solve a lot of small problems and developed new ideas. Linked with going out of space were some medicine machines like a device for measuring blood pressure, which was invented for the first space mission from the us, or the heart activity monitors that are used in hospitals world wide.

• Word count: 956
24.  ## FACTORS AFFECTING BOUNCINESS OF A PING PONG BALL

Now different surface have different state of hardness and texture. The harder the surface, the less energy will be lost by the ball and he higher it will bounce. Now, the smoother the surface the less energy will be dissipated through the surface (see laws of reflection), and the higher the ball will bounce. The coefficient of restitution is a measure of the elasticity of the collision between ball and floor. Elasticity is a measure of how much bounce there is, or in other words, how much of the kinetic energy of the colliding objects before the collision remains as kinetic energy of the objects after the collision.

• Word count: 534
25. ## Physics Pendulum Internal assesment

Dependant Variable Independent Variable Controlled Variables Time Taken For 10 Oscillations Length Of String Weight of pendulum Angle from which ball is released Equipment * Stand * Boss * Clamp * String (at least 80cm) * 2 wooden blocks * Pendulum * Metre ruler * Stopwatch Diagram Method 1. Fix the string with the ball to a clamp as shown in the diagram above and afterwards the whole thing should look like the picture. 2. Practice timing and using the pendulum, make sure you measure as soon as the string passes through the centre point then out to the right,

• Word count: 732
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"The boldness of asking deep questions may require unforeseen flexibility if we are to accept the answers."

-Brian Greene

If you want to learn about the physical laws that govern the behaviour of everything in the universe, then chances are you'd enjoy studying physics as part of your IB diploma. Physics is one of six subjects on offer in group 4, and gives students a grounding in the scientific method, lab work, and range of theoretical concepts. The theory portion begins with building blocks like mechanics, electric currents, and waves, and builds up to advanced topics like astrophysics and particle physics.

Physics will require a fair amount of writing, often in the form of lab reports. If you need to refine your writing skills, come visit our collection of student-submitted IB physics papers. Study the teacher-marked and peer-reviewed papers alongside your own work, and before long, you'll know how to edit and re-write assignments to your teachers' high standards.

Students who get good marks in physics, and especially in high level physics, will leave school well positioned to apply for a range of university course within the physical and biological sciences.

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