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International Baccalaureate: Physics
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In this extended essay, I will be investigating projectile motion via studying the movement of a metal ball bounced off by an unloaded spring. Experimental methods and theoretical models will be used to investigate how the projection height and compressed
Contents 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Hypothesizing 3. Experimental Setup Description 4. Experimental Methods - Procedure - Determining range of metal ball by varying projection height - Procedure - Determining range of metal ball by varying compressed length of the spring 5. Graphing the experimental data and the theoretical data 6. Interpretation of the graphs 7. Comparing experimental results to theoretical hypothesis 8. Evaluation and Conclusion 9. Appendix 1 10.Works and program cited Introduction Projectile motion is a form of parabolic motion when an object is subjected to a constant acceleration, where the initial horizontal velocity perpendicular to the vertical acceleration of gravity is not zero, forming a parabolic trajectory.
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Hence, using the Logger Pro apparatus and application and the Bunsen burner, I will find out the change in temperature over 2 minutes of heating. However, further calculations and data manipulation will be needed to find out its density and heating rate. This will be ensured through the use of the following two equations: All calculations and the recording of raw data (change in temperature and time) will be done through Microsoft Excel and the Logger Pro application. This will ensure that all my calculations are correct and precise.
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Variables Although un-noticeable, there are three different experiments being held in this one lab. Thus in one sub-experiment, there will be an effort to maintain the other independent variables for the other two experiments controlled and constant. The variables for three labs are described below: - The first lab involves the manipulation of radius of the string. This means that the independent variable is the radius of the string, and the dependent variable is the Period (or more precisely, frequency for this experiment). The hanging mass which provides the centripetal force for this motion as well as the mass being swung will be held constant (controlled variables).
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Repeat steps 1-2 again, make sure to have a clean and dry beaker for repetitions. 4. Produce an average temperature produce an average temperature for this solution, as well as a graph of time against average temperature. Make sure to clean and dry the beaker prior to repeating the experiment; this way the test will be fair. 5. From the average temperature, determine ?T (numerical difference before/after the addition of the solute), and do the process for calculating enthalpy change.
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I will be changing periodically the distance l between the two strings after each try increasing the length by 2 cm each time. Thus I will be able to analyze and comprehend the relationship between the two variables (the distance l and the frequency and period of the metal bar). This will be my independent variable over the course of my investigation However to find the frequency of the oscillations of the metal bar, I first need to identify the period (time taken for the bar to swing back and forth to the same point).
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When it hits the powder the kinetic energy is transferred into the powder as heat and more kinetic energy moving the powder out of the way. So therefore the more energy the ball bearing has when it hits the powder the deeper the crater it should make. Crater size is related to the mass and velocity of the impacting body. Mass and velocity can be combined to find the kinetic energy of a ping pong ball. Increasing either the mass or the velocity of the ping pong ball increases the kinetic energy of the impact.
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Suspension Bridges. this extended essay is an investigation to study the variation in tension in the left segment of a relatively inelastic and an elastic string tied between two supports
Followed 11 Calculation of Tension 12 Primary Data Collected and Tension Calculated 13, 14, 15 Nylon String 14 Elastic Band 15 Strain Value of the strings 16 Data Analysis 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 Variation of Tension with Point of Application for Nylon String of length 140 cm 17 Variation of Tension with Point of Application for Elastic Band of length 140 cm 18 Comparison of the graphs for nylon string and elastic band 19 Axis of Symmetry 20 Variation of Tension with Point of Application for Nylon String of lengths 140, 144, 148 and 152 cm 21 Variation
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The objects shape and the height at which it was released were found to have an effect on its final velocity. It was postulated that the water inside a can as it rolls down the incline, does not roll with the can, but slides, reducing the objects rotational inertia. However, throughout the course of this investigation, certain errors in the design of the experiment and the procedure would have had an effect upon the accuracy of the results. INTRODUCTION Rotation about a moving axis - rolling motion Figure 1 - The moon rotates around its axis while it orbits the earth.
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2.5 Table2. Current induced in 300 turns, from 15 cm North South Current ?I �0.5 mA push in (+) Current I (mA) ?I �0.5 mA pull out (-) Current (mA) ?I �0.5 mA push in (-) Current (mA) ?I �0.5 mA pull out (+) 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2,5 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 Mean ( ) 2.80 Mean ( ) 2.95 Mean ( ) 3.1 Mean ( )
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Hypothesis This study analysed the terminal velocities of an object falling under the force of gravity through a fluid at varying temperatures. My hypothesis states that as the temperature of the fluid decreases, the terminal velocity of the object will decrease by a proportion of. I base this prediction on the electrostatic bonding properties displayed in liquids. In order to prove this, an experiment will be conducted using a small metal ball and glycerine. Theory As an object falls through a fluid under the force of gravity, it is subject to three main types of forces: buoyant, drag and gravity (Figure 1)2.
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Experiment was started. The 100 g of slotted mass was dropped 2 cm from the other slotted mass surface with the intention that the 100 g slotted mass will bump with 300 g slotted mass which was placed on the sand surface. As the result, the craters will exist. The depth and diameter of the craters were measured by using meter ruler. After conducting this experiment, we realized that the correlation between the depth of craters and the height of dropping slotted mass is the height of dropped slotted mass is proportional to the depth of craters.
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The low uncertainty in the data allowed a quantitative generalization of the rolling resistance due to the sinkage depth. Thus an effective conclusion could be reached for the rolling resistance force. We were also able to find the least value for the rolling resistance due to the air pressure in the tire. Word Count :- 281 Words Introduction One of the ways to increase the sustainability of fossil fuels is by increasing the efficiency of the work done by automobiles. An important proponent of output loss in automobiles is the rolling resistance that the pneumatic tire faces alongside other mechanisms such as aerodynamic loss, transmission, drive train.
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Wooden block: 293.9g Static friction: 2.3 N Kinetic friction 2.3 N 60 inches: = 1.37 s 75 inches: = 1.67 s 90 inches: = 1.76 s Pencil Case It took approximately 0.93 seconds to travel 75 inches. (205 cm/s) a= 0.22 () Therefore velocity is 0.205 m/s and acceleration is 0.220 400.1 g = 3.22 N (weight) Therefore force of static friction is approximately 4.83 N and the force of friction is approximately 3.864 N (9.8) (1.52) (9.8) (0.5) J 5.958-1.96 = 3.998 3.998 J - 3.8 J = 0.198 J 0.198 J Therefore approximately 0.198 Joules have been lost Tape Holder It took approximately 1.87 seconds to travel 75 inches.
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can be added When 2 quantities are multiplied or divided the overall uncertainty is equal to the addition of the percentage uncertainties Powers = # of power x uncertainty. For other functions such as trigonometric function, the mean, highest and lowest answers may be calculated to obtain the uncertainty range. Uncertainties in graphs: Error bars. Note that a line of best fit should pass through all error bars. Some easy ways to get round this are just to plot the first and last value of error bars or just the worst value and assume the same for all.
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