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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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1. ## uncertainties with marbles

5.2 4.8 4.6 �0.05 5 4.9 5.3 5.5 5.0 4.4 4.4 �0.05 Average 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.2 5.4 4.9 �0.05 The outliers from the results I got. This is measured in cm by using string, since we can't measure diameter with string, this is how we find out diameter. Diameter=Circumference/ The reason why we can't use the string to measure the diameter of a marble is because don't know where half of a marble is. To find the diameter we first measured the circumference by using strings and measured it in ruler and then divided it by to get the diameter.

• Word count: 2690
2. ## Pendulum work out the value of acceleration due to gravity (g), by using the principle of kinematics of simple harmonic motion of a simple pendulum.

The length of the pendulum would include the length of the string as well as the diameter of the mass bob and the length of the hook as well. When the pendulum suspended from a stand is set into oscillation the time periods 'T' of the oscillations of different lengths 'l' will help us in determining the value of "g". As the length of the string is increased, the time period of the oscillations will also increase but the value of 'g' will not as it is constant for a place always.

• Word count: 2237
3. ## Body Moving With constant acceleration

The ball is also of not very high mass and so the apparatus should not give a very high degree of acceleration. Also the grooved rod is of uniform width and thickness throughout, so the data collected will be of good quality. > Theory- The velocity of a uniformly accelerated body changes equally in equal interval of time. Keeping this statement in mind I will proceed with this experiment. As the body is starting from rest, the following equation will hold true: Using simple algebra, we arrive at the following conclusion that the value of acceleration will be calculated out

• Word count: 1344
4. ## IB Physics HL Lab Report on Projectiles

Due to the lack of space, we could only proceed with the experiment once. Degrees Horizontal Distance (in meters) 30 9.50 45 11.30 60 9.00 <Fig1.2 Actual Projectile Results> Even if the actual measured results differ sensibly from the hypothetical values, we can clearly see that an inclination of 45 degrees generates a much longer distance travelled horizontally. During our experiment, water pressure was not constant and there could have been some fluctuations due to wind variation.

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5. ## Physics Higher Level A Laboratory Experiment for Measuring the Speed of a Rifle Bullet

h = 11.523 - 7.515 h = 4.008cm = 0.04008m (scale on the picture) h = 0.04008m (scale on the picture) Acceleration due to Gravity = g = 9.81 m/s2 Mass of bullet = 0.128g = 0.000128kg Mass of Target = 6.94g = 0.00694kg Mass of Both Bullet and Target = 0.000128+ 0.00694 = 0.007068kg Gravitational Potential Energy = Kinetic Energy GPE = KE = = = = = = 0.887 m/s (Velocity of Both Bullet and Target)

• Word count: 511
6. ## IB Physics HL - Relationship between thickness and Resistance of a wire

Measure length as accurate as possible. Record Current as well as P.D 3 times, in 2 decimal places for get accurate answer. Change the thickness of a wire (18, 20, 24, 26, 32, 36, 38 in SWG unit) 7 times. Apparatus Power supply, Voltage meter, anemometer, 2 clips, some electric wire (copper wire) and Nickel chrome wire (18, 20, 24, 26, 32, 36, 38 in SWG unit). Diagram Results Thickness of wire Current (A) Voltage (V) Resistance (?)

• Word count: 592
7. ## Simple Harmonic Motion Physics HL Lab Report

The dependent variable in this experiment will be the period (T) of the simple pendulum. The controlled variables throughout the experiment will be the mass (M) of the bob, the amplitude of swing, the tension in the string and also the number of swings, which will be kept constant throughout so as not to affect the experiment. Planning (b) The apparatus required will be: * a pendulum with a rigid support at point P * a piece of string of length (L) 50cm * a meter rule to measure the length of the string * a lead bob to be used as the mass * a stop watch to measure the period (T)

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8. ## Lab Report " Which fuel is the better source of energy?

Fill the small beaker with 100ml of water and put the thermometer inside it. - Measure the weight of all the spirit burners before burning them, also way just the crucible alone and then the lid alone. - Place one of the spirit burners into the large beaker, light the match and then transfer the fire onto the long piece of thin wood and turn on the spirit burner. - Then place the gauze on the top of the tripod and put the small beaker with the thermometer on the gauze. - Allow the water to heat from the spirit burner for 3 minutes and record the temperature of the water every minute, record your results.

• Word count: 1435
9. ## Lab Report " Spring Extension

Procedure: - Firstly gather all the necessary equipment. - Measure the original length of the spring in order to later see the change that took place. - Then begin by hanging the spring on the retort stand. - Add 100g and measure the extension of the spring. Continue adding 100g each time and measure the extension, then record your results. - When adding up to 800g it is acceptable to leave the retort stand on the table but if more then 800g are added then fasten the retort stand to the table using a g-clamp and then let the weights hang off the table.

• Word count: 566
10. ## Investigation " How the Temperature of a Squash Ball affects the Bounce

After that put the squash ball into the beaker filled with water using the tongs. Make sure to start the stopwatch at the moment the ball goes into the water. Then stop the stopwatch after 1 minute and take the squash ball out of the beaker, using the tongs. 3. Next go to the wall as quickly as possible (so that the temperature of the squash ball does not change) and place the meter stick against the wall, then get ready to start the stopwatch and one person should sit on the floor to see how high the squash ball bounced and also hold the meter stick steadily.

• Word count: 716
11. ## Lab Report " Investigating the Physics of Road Safety

- To launch the trolley, place the trolley at the elevated part of the ramp and let go. - Next measure the distance that the wooden travelled due to the trolley hitting against it and record the results. - Now continue following the same process for the slope of 4cm to 12cm. Data: Attempt 1: Height of Ramp (m) Stopping Distance of Wooden Block (m) 2cm 0 4cm 0.19m 6cm 0.275m 8cm 0.49m 10cm 0.67m 12cm 0.785m Attempt 2: Height of Ramp (m) Stopping Distance of Wooden Block (m) 2cm 0 4cm 0.207m 6cm 0.385m 8cm 0.478m 10cm 0.6m 12cm 0.765m After then completing two attempts of the experiment, we decided to take the average of the results

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12. ## Electromotive Force and Internal Resistance of a cell

However, the value we extrapolated from the graph is 10.136 Volts which is quite different from the hypothetical value. In conclusion, this experiment turned out to be not a very successful lab. Internal resistance was rather different than from what we had first expected. Internal resistance was substantially lower than it should been. The total resistance of the circuit was not solely based on the variable resistance of the Rheostat itself but included its initial resistance.

• Word count: 453
13. ## Phy - Lab Relationship Between Angle and Acc

After gathering data by a ticker tape record, measure the length of every 6 dots (which is 0.1secs consider that ticker tape works at 60Hz). 5. Make a Time-Length table to get a Time-Velocity table (for every degree). 6. Make a graph for each angle from Time-Velocity table (for every degree).

• Word count: 545
14. ## Rubber Band Lab

Constants/Variables Constants - Height of Release (60cm from the ground) - Length of extension of the rubber band (25cm) - Use of the same rubber band for the entire experiment Variables - Angle of Release (from 0 degree to 75 degrees with 15 degrees increments) Apparatus Measuring tape, Ruler, Protractor, Rubber band Method 1. Set down the measuring tape first. 2. Measure each of the angles of release with protractor, from 0 degree to 75 degrees. 3. Release it at 60cm from the ground with an extension of 25cm. 4.

• Word count: 449
15. ## Measuring the gravitational accelearation

Hold the string by a clamp. 3. Ruler to measure the length of string. 4. Start from 0.49m, and decrease progressively the interval by 0.06 meter. 5. Record the time when the 20 swings (one single swing means a complete oscillation of the pendulum) are finished. 6. Record the time twice at the same length.

• Word count: 387
16. ## Specific Heat Capacity

We will be measuring the Specific Heat Capacity of aluminium with the calorimeter. The definition of Specific Heat Capacity is the amount of heat energy needed to produce a temperature rise of 1�K in 1 kg of a substance. Data Collection Mass of calorimeter = 1022.15g (0.005g) = 1.02215kg Total time in seconds = 10 minutes 60 seconds = 600 seconds (approx. 0.005 sec) V1 = Voltage of 1st trial = 8.4 Volts (0.005V) I1 = Ampere of 1st trial = 3.0 Amperes (0.005A) V2 = Voltage of 2ndrial = 9.0 Volts (0.005V)

• Word count: 710
17. ## Relationship between Angle and Acceleration

After gathering data by a ticker tape record, measure the length of every 6 dots (which is 0.1secs consider that ticker tape works at 60Hz). 5. Make a Time-Length table to get a Time-Velocity table (for every degree). 6. Make a graph for each angle from Time-Velocity table (for every degree).

• Word count: 542
18. ## How does a variation of current through the windings of insulated wire affect the strength in the electromagnet?

Hence, we predict that the electromagnet strength will increase at the same rate as we increase the current. Planning B Diagram Apparatus and materials - DC Power kit - Voltmeter - Ammeter - 12cm of nail - Winding wire - Wire and crocodile clamps - Rheostat - Spring balance Method 1. Turn the wire 25 times around the nail to construct the electromagnet. 2. a) A secure crocodile clamp between winding wire and circuit at both ends. b) Connect the wire with ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat and Power supply 3.

• Word count: 601
19. ## Motion of Hollow Cylinders

The objects shape and the height at which it was released were found to have an effect on its final velocity. It was postulated that the water inside a can as it rolls down the incline, does not roll with the can, but slides, reducing the objects rotational inertia. However, throughout the course of this investigation, certain errors in the design of the experiment and the procedure would have had an effect upon the accuracy of the results. INTRODUCTION Rotation about a moving axis - rolling motion Figure 1 - The moon rotates around its axis while it orbits the earth.

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20. ## The Latent Heat of Fusion

I do not add additional uncertainty as I did not encounter any further difficulties in weight measurement. To determine masses I used a digital scale with provided uncertainty in the instruction of the digital scale of �0.2g. Therefore, I take it as the absolute uncertainty of the mass measurements. I take the temperature of ice as 0�C because the ice was melting when I started to use it in my experiment. I take this temperature theoretically and do not include uncertainty to this measurement as it is in theoretical level. After having determined the raw data, I fill it into the table.

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21. ## Determination of Coefficient of Friction

should be �0.05N, but I decided to take this uncertainty as �0.1N as it was hard to determine the friction force correctly. I needed to pull the block with the weights at just that force to overcome the friction. I needed to pull equally and using the constant force. It was hard to do, so I decided to add some further uncertainty. Data processing: When determining the kinetic friction coefficient the mg is equal to the normal force. In each situation I add the weight of the block with weight of the number of weights added.

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22. ## Density of Glass

Method (Procedures):- For regular shapes: o Measuring the mass of the glass of regular shape using balance. o Measuring the volume by doing some measurements according to the geometry of the shape. For irregular shapes: o Measuring the mass of the glass of regular shape using balance o Fill the measuring cylinders with amount of water enough to cover the pieces of glass. o Drop the piece of glass in the water (gently). o Take the difference in volumes. Data Collection:- Table 1:- The Table Shows the Masses and Volume of Regular Shapes Shapes Mass/g (� 0.01) Volume/cm� (� 0.5)

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23. ## Simple Pendulum

Fix the top of the thread on the stand. Set the bob to oscillate and count the number of oscillation (Say 20 oscillations). Measure the length (L) of the pendulum and the period (T). Change the length of the thread and measure the new period time. Repeat this for at least 7 trials. Data Collection: - Table 1: - The table below shows the variation between length of the string and the time period of the oscillating pendulum L / m (� 0.0005 m) T/ s (� 0.01 s) T2 / s (� 0.01 s)

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24. ## permeability of free space

Observation No. I (A) B (mT) 1 0.193 -1.2472 �0.0394 2 0.225 -1.1946 �0.0496 3 0.240 -1.1369 �0.0443 4 0.325 -1.1623 �0.0377 5 0.355 -1.1840 �0.0358 6 0.372 -1.1722 �0.0401 7 0.415 -1.1701 �0.0304 8 0.451 -1.1861 �0.0266 9 0.514 -1.2265 �0.0423 10 0.570 -1.2520 �0.0416 11 0.600 -1.2351 �0.0369 12 0.656 -1.2593 �0.0327 13 0.701 -1.3156 �0.0458 14 0.758 -1.3420 �0.0560 15 0.809

• Word count: 540
25. ## Focal Length of a convergin lens

Repeat step 3, nine more times (moving the candle further away from the lens). Record u and v each time 5. Place the candle and screen back in the original position found in step1 6. Move the screen away from the lens by 5 cm more and adjust the candle distance (u), until the image is one again in focus. Record u and v 7. Repeat the same steps of measurements by using different converging lens. Data collection: Table1. Table of u vs v U (the initial position) ?l �0.05 cm V (the image produced)

• Word count: 1729