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International Baccalaureate: Physics

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  1. IB Investigating Specific Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water

    Uncertainty in measuring mass of the water was ±0.1g because it was measured using a weighing machine with the ±0.1g uncertainty. Table 2: Mass of water evaporate over time with uncertainties Time ±1s Mass of Water Evaporated (±0.1 g) Average Uncertainty Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 15 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.0 5.4 4.9 0.4 30 11.5 10.5 10.7 10.6 10.9 10.8 0.5 45 16.7 16.6 16.6 16.3 16.7 16.6 0.2 60 22.4 22.1 22.9 23.0 23.4 22.6 0.6 75 28.4 28.6 28.5 29.1 29.1 28.7 0.4 90 34.2 34.3 35.0 34.4 35.1 34.5 0.4 105

    • Word count: 933
  2. Physics Spinning Stopper Lab

    Time took for the stopper to revolve 10 times (±0.1s) Average Time (seconds) Average Time Uncertainty (seconds) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 0.100 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 0.2 0.150 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.0 3.2 3.2 0.1 0.200 3.7 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.7 0.2 0.250 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 0.2 0.300 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 0.1 0.350 5.5 4.7 4.6 4.8 4.9 4.9 0.4 0.400 5.0 5.1 5.7 5.7 5.2 5.3 0.3 0.450 5.7 5.8 6.1 5.9 5.3 5.7 0.4 *Uncertainty value of the length of the string is from the smallest division of the instrument since 0.001m length

    • Word count: 663
  3. HL Physics Revision Notes

    can be added When 2 quantities are multiplied or divided the overall uncertainty is equal to the addition of the percentage uncertainties Powers = # of power x uncertainty. For other functions such as trigonometric function, the mean, highest and lowest answers may be calculated to obtain the uncertainty range. Uncertainties in graphs: Error bars. Note that a line of best fit should pass through all error bars. Some easy ways to get round this are just to plot the first and last value of error bars or just the worst value and assume the same for all.

    • Word count: 11534
  4. How does the change in the number of gas particles change the pressure of gas in a glass beaker

    Implied by the name, the gas constant is constant. Putting water into the beaker will control the temperature because of the high heat capacity of water and the low heat capacity of air. The beaker that is made of glass will keep the volume the same. Variables: Independent variable The amount of air in the beaker Dependent variable Pressure in the beaker Controlled variables Controlled variable How Why Volume Glass beaker If the gas decreases its volume, either the temperature or the pressure can increase Temperature Some water in the beaker It is expected that the temperature of the air will decrease if air is pulled out of the beaker.

    • Word count: 539
  5. Science Research Project - The Forces in Avalanches

    We set this type of problem into the ?dynamics? section of physics. Dynamics generally talks about the time evolution of physical processes which is exactly like an avalanche force. Section 2. Goals and Rationale My goal is to learn about this topic as much as possible. I would like to know about the driving force and the motion resistance. Another interesting thing would be to study all the resisting forces. I would be pleasured to study this because it is interesting for me and I do not know anything about it so I would like to learn it.

    • Word count: 1179
  6. Rocket Physics Lab

    Take another 8.5 × 11 inch paper and fold it into four equal sections by folding shorter sides together. Cut one quarter off to make a ¾ sized paper. Take another 8.5 × 11 inch paper and fold it into thirds, then cut one-third off to make a 2/3 sized paper. Take the full sized paper, ½ sized paper, 2/3 sized paper, ¼ sized paper and fold them into cone shaped rockets. Apply tape to secure the rocket shape and block any opening at the top of the cone shaped rockets. Weigh all the paper rockets, the chemistry textbook as well as the eraser with tape that will be placed inside the rockets.

    • Word count: 919
  7. Horizontal Circular Motion Lab

    Partner B will swirl the stopper over his head until the upper clip comes very close to the glass tube, he will also make sure that the stopper is swinging in a horizontal fashion and eliminate any vertical directions made by the stopper to the best of his ability, Partners A and C will give feedback about how the accuracy of his swing. Partner C will be the timer who will call out the time required for x number of revolutions made by the stopper.

    • Word count: 1838
  8. Gamma Rays

    They lose their energy slowly in material, being able to travel significant distances before stopping. Depending on their initial energy, gamma rays can travel from 1 to hundreds of meters in air and can easily go right through people. Diagram 01 The most o1: shows how gamma rays can penetrate various materials easily and cause damage. Retrieved from : 1: terrestrial: originated from the planet earth (not alien). Important sources of gamma radiation include natural sources are: medical uses, atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, nuclear accidents, and nuclear power generation. Ionizing radiation is present naturally in the environment from cosmic and terrestrial sources.

    • Word count: 1198
  9. Determining gravity from a simple pendulum

    + Trial 2 + Trial 3)/3 eg: (40.77+41.00+41.07)/3 = 40.95 Uncertainty of average: [(Highest value)-(lowest value)]/2 eg: [(41.07)-(40.77)]/2 = +/-0.15 s Time period: Average time for 20 oscillations/20 eg: 40.95/20 = 2.05 Acceleration due to gravity: ( 4 ?2 l)/t2 eg: ( 4 ?2*1)/2.052 = 9.394 = 9.40 ms-2 Uncertainty of gravity: [(Uncertainty of length/ value of length)+(Uncertainty of time period/value of time period)]*100 eg: ( 0.1/1)+(0.01/2.05)*100 =9.40 ms-2

    • Word count: 447
  10. Gravity lab using mass and force meters

    mass graph, then, our data points will form a straight line and the slope of the line will give us the g. Experimental Procedure: 1. We got our force meter, 10 100g masses and a stand to put our force meter on. 2. I hooked the force meter on to the stand and hanged the 100g mass, while my partner measured the value on the force meter.

    • Word count: 444
  11. Experiment to show the application of Kirchhoffs Voltage Law & Kirchhoffs Current Law in series, parallel and combination circuits.

    Also for current to flow either in or out of a node a closed circuit path must exist. We can use Kirchoff's current law when analyzing parallel circuits. Kirchoff?s second law that is KVL states that in any closed loop network, the total voltage around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop which is also equal to zero. In other words the algebraic sum of all voltages within the loop must be equal to zero.

    • Word count: 2394
  12. How does the suspended mass affect the time period of an oscillation of a spring?

    A number of three readings were taken for each mass suspended. 6. The suspended masses were 269.4 g, 359.4 g, 449.2 g, 539.9 g and 585.3 g. Figure 1: The Experimental Arrangement Spring Weights Meter Rule Clamp Stand Data Collection: 1. Following were the recordings of the Time Period of the various masses suspended from the spring pendulum: 1. 269.4 g Sl.No Mass suspended - m [g] No. of Oscillations (n) Time Period of 'n=20' Oscillations [s] Time Period (t) [s] 1 269.4 20 13.12 0.656 2 269.4 20 13.09 0.6545 3 269.4 20 13.06 0.653 AVERAGE: 0.65 1.

    • Word count: 1242
  13. Measuring the density of cubes of Aluminium and Brass

    Record the mass of the aluminium cube. 7. Repeat steps 5-6 for brass cube. Method of measuring volume: 1. Fill up a measuring cylinder to 150 ml. 2. Gently place the aluminium cube in the cylinder (do not drop it). 3. Measure the displacement increase. 4. Find the displacement of the cube( initial volume ? final volume) 5. Repeat steps 1-4 for brass cube. 6. Measure the length of the aluminium cube with a rule and calliper.

    • Word count: 537
  14. Investigating the Oscillations of an Obstructed Pendulum

    Dependent Variable: The time period of one oscillation Control Variables: 1. Mass and properties of the bob being used 2. Angle of displacement (10°) 3. Mass and physical properties of the string being used 4. Positioning and location of the stand 5. The orientation of the obstruction 6. Room conditions Apparatus: 1. 1 stand to which the spring, the bob, and the obstruction will be attached 2. 1 bob of mass 100g 3. 1 string 4. 1 wooden rod of approximately 15cm length (obstruction) 5. 1 stopwatch 6. 1 metre ruler Risk Assessment: 1.

    • Word count: 2055

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