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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents 1. ## Energy density experiment - Aim: To determine the energy density of ethanol

After obtaining the energy, divide by the mass of the fuel burnt to determine the energy density. Method: 1. Water was measured and weighed on a electronic balance in a beaker. The initial temperature of the water was also recorded. 2. Using a retort stand and clamp, the beaker was held above the spirit burner which contained ethanol. 3. The ethanol was placed on top of the electronic balance. While the ethanol was burning, for every 0.5g of ethanol burnt, the temperature of the water was recorded. 4. The water was refilled when the temperature of the water reached a high temperature.

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2. ## How does the number of holes in a plastic cup affect the time it takes the water to drip out of a cup?

of water. This then would be poured into the cup. The drainage time of the water will be measured with a stopwatch (�.01s). The timing will start when the water first makes contacts with the paper cup and stop when the water stops dripping from the cup. The same person will be timing for each trial. Controlled Variables: A control of this experiment would be using the same type of cup with the same size throughout the experiment. The size of the cup would be measured by using a paper mm ruler to measure the diameter of the bottom of the cup.

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3. ## How does the mass of the paper helicopter affect the drop time of the paper helicopter?

Responding Variable: The drop time of the paper helicopter The drop time will be measured with a stopwatch (�.01s). The timing will start when the hand lets go of the paper helicopter at a drop height of 1 meter and stop when the paper helicopter touches the floor. The same person will be timing for each trial. Controlled Variable: A control of this experiment would be having the drop height the same throughout the experiment. This will be measured by using a meter stick and marking the height at which to drop the paper helicopter. The paper helicopter will drop at that marked height each time.

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4. ## Experiment to measure the speed of sound in a resonance tube

Processed Data Resonating Length (cm) �0.5 Resonating Length (m) Resonating Length uncertainty (m) 33 0.33 0.002 29.5 0.295 0.01 26.5 0.265 0.01 22.1 0.221 0.004 19.9 0.199 0.01 17.7 0.177 0.01 16.5 0.165 0.01 l= observed resonating length L= corrected resonating length Diameter of tube= 3.54 cm Radius= 3.54/2 = 1.77cm End-Correction= 0.6 x r =0.6 x 0.0177 =0.01062 L = (l+e) �0.005 (m) 1/L (1/m) 0.34062 2.93 0.30562 3.27 0.27562 3.62 0.23162 4.31 0.20962 4.77 0.18762 5.32 0.17562 5.69 The slope of the graph is 0.01075 To find the average speed , 1/slope x 4 = (1/0.01075)

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5. ## EMF and Internal Resistance of a cell

Because the equation is now in the format y = mx + c, we know that E will be the y-intercept value, and -r will be the gradient. I plotted three sets of data for current and voltage: my original results, the values including uncertainties that would give the largest values of E and -r, and the values including uncertainties that would give the smallest values of E and -r.

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6. ## Telescopes - science research project.

In 1655 Christiaan Huygenswere did build powered but clumsy telescope with joined eyepieces. Isaac Newton is honored as the creator of the first real-world reflector in 1668. In 1672 Laurent Cassegrain explained the structure of a reflector having a little convex glass for reflecting the light within a center hole in the primary glass.  Figure 1: Telescopes There are some of the currently used Telescopes such as Large Binocular Telescope and Gran Telescopio Canarias. Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) An optical Telescope as Large Binocular Telescope (LBT)

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7. ## The aim of this experiment is to find out if a steaming cup of coffee stays warm longer when leaving it untouched, or pouring cold milk into it

First of all the coffee has to be made. Pour some water in the large beaker and heat it using the Bunsen burner. Once the water is boiling sprinkle the coffee powder into the beaker and stir it until the coffee is made. 2. Now pour equal amounts of coffee into the beakers A and B, and place a thermometer in each beaker. Set the stopwatch on zero and start recording the time. Record the temperature of each beaker. 3. Pour the milk into beaker A and stir the liquids for a short amount of time.

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8. ## Simple pendulum lab. In this experiment, the length of the string will be altered to see the affect on the time period.

As the length of the string is being changed, it is the independent variable. This would affect the time period, hence being the dependant variable. Factors like the mass of the bob (154.02g �0.01g), angle of release (45� �1�), the stopwatch (�0.01s) The main purpose of the experiment is to find one factor that affects the time period of a simple pendulum. In this case, the factor is length of the string. Hypothesis As the length of the string decreases, the time period also decreases. This is because, as the length of the string decreases, the bob has to travel less distance in the same time (10 oscillations).

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9. ## Physics lab on propagation of errors. In this experiment I investigated the propagation of errors while calculating the volume of two objects.

I decided to first take the spherical object. The amount of water displaced by the spherical object is equal to the volume of said object. The rise in the level of water came out to be 9cm3. The error in this case can be calculated as + 1 (because the LC of the cylinder is 0.5 mm). Next we calculate the volume using the formula to calculate the volume of a sphere i.e.Volume of a sphere = 4/3 ?r3. The radius of the spherical object is half the diameter, which I found using the Vernier Calipers.

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10. ## Physics lab on calculation of copper density using different equipment

This in turn would give me the density. I started the experiment by measuring the diameter of the wire, using the micrometer screw gauge. Before starting the measurement I checked for an error in the screw gauge. My gauge had a 0.002 cm positive error, which I had to subtract from my readings. I put the wire in the clamp of the gauge and tightened it, then I took note of the reading on the circular scale. I repeated this four more times (to get an accurate answer), then subtracted 0.002cm from each of the reading and then took an average of all the readings giving me the true value of the diameter of the wire.

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11. ## Conservation of Momentum Experiment.

Uncertainty for Average Initial Velocity of Cue Puck: = 0.92cm/s Final Abs. Uncertainty for Average Initial Velocity of Stationary Puck: N/A No Movement Final Abs. Uncertainty for Average Final Velocity of Cue Puck: 0.714...%+0.180...%=0.895% 0.39cm/s Final Abs. Uncertainty for Average Final Velocity of Stationary Puck: 0.90%+0.18145=1.081% 0.49cm/s - [Data Table #2] Final Processed Data: Cue Puck Stationary Puck Mass of Puck �1g 553 551 Angle of Movement �0.1� 39.0 [S of E] 40.0 [N of E] Average Initial Length Between Dots �0.01cm 1.40 N/A (Stationary)

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12. ## Determine the spring constant of a vertical spiral spring in simple harmonic motion using Hookes law.

Materials: - Test Spring (Manufacture Unknown, Weight Resistance Unknown) - Standard Lab Retort Stand - Meter Stick (used for measuring the oscillation of spring) 100.00 �0.05 cm - A set of 100.0 �0.2g Standard test masses (Used to manipulate spring oscillation.) Variables: - Manipulated Variable: Mass Added The mass added will be kept at a constant increase of 100g per trial; each 100g mass will be hooked on to the mass bottom of the previous mass. - Responding Variable: Spring Oscillation The increase in the oscillation of the spring will be measured by a stationary meter stick placed vertically beside

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13. ## Current Balance Lab - investigate how a magnetic field affects a wire carrying an electric current.

In other words, the strength of a magnetic field and the size of the current through the wire will be directly proportional. The slope of this line will simply be the force over the current: We will use this relationship to calculate the strength B, inside the solenoid because combining the two previous formulas: Basing my hypothesis on these known formulas, I can safely predict that as more current is passed through the wire, the magnetic field will undoubtedly increase.

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14. ## Physics Airtrack Experiment. The effects of angle on the acceleration of a glider on an airtrack.

Reset photogates in order to make sure you recieve a proper time during experiment. Step 2- Set airtrack at a spefic angle using a protractor (in this case at 2� (+- 1�). Step 3- Initiate airtrack and observe as glider glides past photogates and collides with Rubber band stopper. Step 4- Record time output given by initial photogate. Step 5- Repeat step 1 through 4 for 5 trials at the same angle on the air track. Step 6- Increase the angle of the airtrack using a protractor (doesn't have to be incrementally) and repeat steps 1 through 5.

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15. ## In this extended essay, I will be investigating projectile motion via studying the movement of a metal ball bounced off by an unloaded spring. Experimental methods and theoretical models will be used to investigate how the projection height and compressed

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical Hypothesizing 3. Experimental Setup Description 4. Experimental Methods - Procedure - Determining range of metal ball by varying projection height - Procedure - Determining range of metal ball by varying compressed length of the spring 5. Graphing the experimental data and the theoretical data 6. Interpretation of the graphs 7. Comparing experimental results to theoretical hypothesis 8. Evaluation and Conclusion 9. Appendix 1 10.Works and program cited Introduction Projectile motion is a form of parabolic motion when an object is subjected to a constant acceleration, where the initial horizontal velocity perpendicular to the vertical acceleration of gravity is not zero, forming a parabolic trajectory.

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16. ## An investigation into the bending of a cantilever beam and an attempt to determine the mathematical concepts involved.

There are forces that act on the beam these have been called F1, F2, F3. The depression of the cantilever is given by: x = Kln * Where x is the value of depression. l is the normal straight length of the beam, and k is the proportionality constant. The following equation can be obtained from the above one. ln1 = lnx + lnk Procedure * A depression of 20cm is required, which is why you have to find a weight which will cause this successfully.

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17. ## This is a practical to investigate the relationship between time period for oscillations and mass attached to a spring. When mass is attached to the spring and stretched, we observe that the mass-spring system starts oscillating.

Apparatus Used: - Spring - 0.1kg (x6) masses - Boss and Clamp. - Retort Stand. - Stopwatch - Set square and ruler - Mean pointer I am going to change the independent variable by adding masses attached to the spring. First, I will start by adding a 0.1kg mass. Then, I will continue to add a 0.1kg mass and take readings for the time of oscillations until I have added 0.6kg. Once I have finished taking readings for 0.6kg, I will end my experiment.

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18. ## Uniform Motion Lab. This experiment will measure the motion of a cart moving on an incline plane that is sloped downwards which leads onto a level horizontal track.

It was measured using a spark timer, with a constant setting of 10Hz (10 dots /s). Dependent Variable- The displacement of the cart as it travels on an inclined plane. The time was measured using the spark timer and the distance from each dot on the ticker tape was measured by a meter stick and used to determine the displacement. Controlled Variables- * Environment: The experiments were performed in the same part of the classroom and this ensured more accurate results. There was no wind to affect or assist the cart in its movement across the horizontal track.

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19. ## Physics Lab Report. Aim: To find out how a light dependent resistor is affected by light intensity.

Voltmeter 5. Wires 6. Light Sensor 7. Logger Pro 8. Laptop 9. Power Supply Method: 1. Connect up all the wires in order to the resistor and the power supply. Connect the voltmeter to the resistor in series. Attach the light bulb to a socket and put the light bulb facing downwards on the clamp stand. 2. Put the power supply and the light bulb on. Connect the logger pro to the laptop and the light sensor to the logger pro and turn the software on. 3. Put the light sensor and the resistor the same distance away from the bulb.

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20. ## Physics lab - Cantilever Beam

On top of this, if we do not know what the value of n is. So, we take logs of both sides of the equation. The equation below has used natural logarithms: ln () = ln ( ln () = ln () + ln () ln () = ln () + ln () This is now in the same form as the equation for a straight-line: Thus, if we plot ln () on the y-axis and ln () on the x-axis we will get a straight-line graph. The gradient will be equal to. The y-intercept will be equal to ln ()

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21. ## Physics Lab

Take three readings for each mass. 10. Repeat steps 7-9 using 200g, 300g, 400g and 500g masses in turn and record all the results. Data Collection: Table 1: Raw data:- Mass (in g �0.01g) Length of spring (in cm �0.05cm) 0.00 13.80 100.00 19.50 200.00 29.00 300.00 38.50 400.00 48.50 500.00 58.50 Table 2: Calculating force and extension:- * In order to calculate the force exerted on the spring by the masses we use the formula F = mg, where F is the force in Newtons (N), m is the mass in kilograms (Kg)

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22. ## This experiment is going to consist of using a book as a capacitor.Research question How does the amount of pages between the aluminum foil (x) affect the amount of charge/farads (y) the book can hold?

It just holds it. This experiment is going to consist of using a book as a capacitor. Research question How does the amount of pages between the aluminum foil (x) affect the amount of charge/farads (y) the book can hold? Independent Variables: The number of pages between the aluminum foil Dependent Variables: The number of farads/ amount of charge the book holds Control Variables: The book, the cables, and the environment Hypothesis By adding more pages between the foils the amount of charge the book can hold should increase because the volume increases between the foils.

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23. ## Pendulum lab. The main purpose for this experiment is to find the factor that will affect the time of a pendulum. In this scenario, the length is the one of the factor that will affect time.

One of my classmates will contribute to the experiment using a stopwatch to measure time while I conduct the procedures. 1. When all the materials are gathered, attach the T-bar to the lab table. 2. Tie the string to the T-bar 30 centimeters away from the peak. 3. Tie the bob (1000 grams) to the string and adjust the length of the string to designated amount, may need adjustment from the string that is tied to the T-bar. 4. Set the bob next to the bar, check if the classmate is ready to start the time.

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24. ## Beer Foam IA

6.90 40 6.70 7.60 6.60 45 6.50 7.50 6.40 50 6.30 7.40 6.10 55 6.10 7.20 5.90 60 5.80 7.00 5.70 65 5.60 6.85 5.50 70 5.40 6.50 5.40 75 5.20 6.20 5.10 80 5.00 5.90 4.90 85 4.60 5.60 4.50 90 4.40 5.30 4.20 95 3.90 4.60 3.70 100 3.20 3.90 3.10 105 2.30 3.00 2.30 110 1.50 2.00 1.60 115 1.20 1.00 1.10 120 0.00 0.00 0.00 Now, we must calculate the average amount of foam, the uncertainty in the amount of foam and the natural log of the average amount of foam.

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25. ## Physics Lab

Obtain the picture of the planet Uranus that has all its moons and its orbits 2. Measure the radius from the center of Uranus to the moon's orbit on the x and y direction 3. Find the average of the radius in the x and y direction and multiply the answer by 1000 to go from cm to m 4.

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