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International Baccalaureate: Physics
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46.0 840.00 46.3 870.00 46.5 900.00 46.8 930.00 47.1 960.00 47.3 990.00 47.6 1020.00 47.8 1050.00 48.1 1080.00 48.4 1110.00 48.6 1140.00 48.9 1170.00 49.1 1200.00 49.4 PROCESSING Calculating the values for Temperature in Kelvin: Temperature (K) = Temperature (oC) +273 Temperature values (K) Temperature (T) / K (� 0.1) K 313.0 313.2 313.4 313.6 313.8 314.0 314.2 314.4 314.6 314.8 315.1 315.3 315.5 315.7 315.9 316.1 316.3 316.5 316.7 316.9 317.2 317.5 317.7 318.0 318.2 318.5 318.8 319.0 319.3 319.5 319.8 320.1 320.3 320.6 320.8 321.1 321.4 321.6 321.9 322.1 322.4 Calculating values for Change in Temperature Change in Temperature (?T)
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gets converted in KE (kinetic energy).When the height at which the ball is dropped is increased it simply means that the stored G.P.E of the ball increased too. Which implies more GPE is being converted to more K.E as soon as the ball hits the surface. And the more K.E. Possessed by the ball at that particular moment the more of it got transferred into E.P.E ( Elastic potential energy) and back to K.E. In the end the more K.E that leaves from the ground -the higher the ball bounces and the longer it takes to stop due to gravity.
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The purpose of this experiment is to observe the acceleration of an object caused by the Earth's gravity.
* Put the carbon paper disk onto the buzzer and thread the ticker tape through the guide slots on the buzzer and under the carbon paper disk. The black side of the disk should be touching the ticker tape. * Attach the weight onto the end of the ticker tape and check that the weight can fall freely, pulling the ticker tape smoothly through the buzzer. * Put something soft (school bag) on the floor where the weight will fall.
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On a straight wall, use the tape ruler, to mark the following heights of release: 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 cm's with a marker. 2. Get a volunteer to be able to measure the time taken for the basketball to impact the ground from a initial height of 30cm's. 3. Use the straight flat surface and place it completely horizontally right underneath the marked height of the wall, and on top of it place the basketball ensuring a constant angle of 180 degrees from release.
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This means that the speed of which the heat in his apartment transfers is too big. To solve Mr. Smith's problem, it is my task to figure out how to improve the insulation of the apartment. In his apartment heat is being transferred through his windows, walls, floor and roof. Mr. Smith's apartment is situated in a fairly old building. This means that his windows are most likely single-paned windows. These windows are excellent conductors of heat, hence the fact that they are poor insulators. In the wintertime, inadequately insulated windows are to blame for 15-35% of heat loss.
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Charles Law Research Question: Investigate the relationship between the length of a column of air and its temperature in Celsius and by doing so, find a value for Absolute Zero.
The result could therefore be stated as: 3.3 � 0.05cm. However, we must take into account that a length is a measure of two different positions, then a subtraction of the two. The end of the capillary tube of air may not be exactly on the zero of the ruler. Consider two different alternatives to the initial length of column of air measure from the bottom of the capillary tube: Length of the Column of Air: (5.3 � 0.05)cm - (2.0 � 0.05)cm From the above, it can be deduced that the length can be between: (5.3 + 0.05)cm -
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type and number of rubber bands used, the distance that the catapult is pulled (force used), mass of the box, the type of catapult used, testing ground , humidity Material:- a catapult, rubber bands, tape, a box with four different surfaces , measuring meter, notebook, pen Method:- 1. The catapult was placed on the cement floor. 2. Two rubber bands were attached to either legs of the catapult. Afterward the launcher of the catapult was attached to the rubber bands.
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Out of these, only the halogen, fluorescent, CFL and LED lamps are well known. I say this because most of the many sources I searched hardly mentioned high-intensity discharge lamps and low-pressure sodium lamps. Given the different types of bulbs that there are, one might wonder why people don't buy the more efficient light bulbs. The simple and perhaps only reason is that the other light bulbs are not as cheap as an incandescent bulbs. That is, incandescents cost way less than any other option.
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Now scientists have come up with new solutions to preserve our natural climate. These projects are called geo-engineering. Geo-engineering has become a controversial topic, as many scientists doubt the necessity and effectiveness of the many individual projects. Many believe that we do not have the moral right to "play god" and change the climate, as we still do not know enough about our climate and its reactions to man-made changes. 1 The first idea, named Marine Stratiform Cloud Enhancement, is supposed to reflect the sun rays by making artificial clouds.
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two equally acceptable methods: First Method Double the relative uncertainty for period, using the equation: e.g. for l = 0.100 � 0.005 m, T = 0.69 � 0.04 s: ?(T2) = 0.48 x 2 x 0.04/0.69 = 0.055652 � 0.06 (to 1 sig. fig.) Second Method Find the maximum and minimum values of period squared, take the difference and divide by two. e.g. for l = 0.100 � 0.005 m, T = 0.69 � 0.04 s: T2 = 0.692 = 0.4761 Tmax = (0.69 + 0.04)2 = 0.5329 Tmin = (0.69 - 0.04)2 = 0.4225 So ?(T2)
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However, when the voltage is increased significantly to around 25V, the filament begins to glow even when immersed in water. The voltmeter reading represents the drop in voltage across the given conductor showing the presence of a resistor. Data Processing: Resistance is given by the formula : = The uncertainty calculation is done using = ; change in resistance = Since ?V=?I=0.01 For a resistor to be Ohmic, the graph of the plotted V-I readings: * Must pass through the origin * V and I must be directly proportional.
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> The string is then held while the bob is rotated in a horizontal circular motion. > The time taken for 20 revolutions is recorded using a stopwatch. > The radius of the arc is then changed, and readings for the time are taken again. > The procedure is repeated for 10 different radii (lengths of string) and 5 readings for the time are taken for each radius. > The data is then used to find the average radius and average time, to find the acceleration due to gravity. Error Propagation: > Error Of Meter Scale = Least count of meter scale � 2 (Analog Instrument)
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Also include a hypothesis and a sketch graph of what you think will happen. The above information was given to the student by the instructor. What follows immediately below is the student's own work. Research Question: How can increasing the number of rubber bands increase the time of rotation? Variables: 1. Independent Variables: -The number of rubber bands 2. Dependent Variables: -Time the rotational pendulum to make a complete rotation 3. Controlled Variable: -The number of rotations made before the rotational pendulum is released -The weight of the pendulum -The length of the ruler -The devices that is attached to both
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Design a procedure to test a factor(s) that affects a falling coffee filter and that includes appropriate use of apparatus for the control, collection and analysis of data.
This procedure should include the following sections. * Defining the Problem and selecting variables: * Controlling the Variables: * Developing a method for collecting data: The above information was given to the student by the instructor. What follows immediately below is the student's own work. Problem: When an object is released from rest, it initially experiences no drag force. As it falls, its speed increases and so does the force of air resistance acting on it. Eventually, the drag force is as large as the force of gravity and then the net force acting on the object is zero.
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You may be very familiar with swinging pendulums and the variables that do and do not affect. In this design lab, you will learn about how a torsional (twisting) pendulum works.
Hypothesis: As number of coins on the ruler increases, the time to complete one period will also increase. This is because it takes more force to move a heavier mass. Because the simple equation of circular motion is , the distance between coin and center of mass (radius) is kept constant, and the amount of initial force applied to the ruler (the number of twists and rubber bands) is kept as constant as possible throughout the lab, as mass increases, velocity must decrease; this will increase the time for each period.
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However when the length of the wire is doubled, its cross-sectional area is halved. (Assuming the volume of the nichrome wire remains constant and of course that the wire is a cylinder if we zoom in.) As resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area, halving the area leads to doubling the resistance. The combined effect of doubling the length and halving the cross-sectional area is that the original resistance of the wire has been quadrupled. However in this experiment we will mainly be working with Ohm's law (V=IR) for our calculations in order to see how the length of a nichrome wire affects the resistance.
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?T= equipment error + reaction error Example 1: To obtain the uncertainties for time, the average needs to be found out using the following formula: Average = sum of values = 3.81 + 3.63 + 3.74 = 3.73s number 3 To find the uncertainty for time, the biggest difference (regardless of whether it's the maximum or minimum value) needs to be taken away from the average. 3.81 - 3.73 = 0.08 3.73- 3.63 = 0.10s So we use � 0.10s for the first mass.
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Research question: Part A : What is the static friction coefficient of a certain surfaces that are in contact? Part B : What is the kinetic friction coefficient of a certain surfaces that are in contact?
The acceleration is calculated by using the marks dotted onto a strip of ticker tape. The value of the coefficient is determined by using the formula of. From the experiment, it can be determined that the kinetic coefficient of wood surface with wood surface is 0.3290, glass surface with wood surface is 0.2390 and between the sand paper surface and wood surface is 0.4780. Research question: Part A : What is the static friction coefficient of a certain surfaces that are in contact? Part B : What is the kinetic friction coefficient of a certain surfaces that are in contact?
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Circular Motion Practical - The graphs show that there is a positive correlation between force applied and speed of rotation, as well as a positive correlation between radius and speed.
0.295 0.490 0.675 0.881 1.08 1.27 1.46 Speed 1.9�0.10 2.3�0.15 2.7�0.26 3.0�0.36 3.3�0.25 3.6�0.30 3.7�0.50 Example of calculation using data in column 1: Results after calculations for test 2 when mass of the object being constant 0.0152�0.0001kg, force constant 0.675�0.0098N radius(�0.005m) 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Speed 2.5�0.33 3.2�0.44 3.6�0.28 4.5�1.15 4.3 �0.33 4.9�0.27 5.1�0.42 Example of calculation using data in column 1: Conclusion The graphs show that there is a positive correlation between force applied and speed of rotation, as well as a positive correlation between radius and speed.
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� 100. * Percentage Deviation =( Exp Value - Accepted Value) / Accepted Value X 100% Apparatus: * Hot wheels radar gun * Video recording device (mobile phone) * Markers (shoes) * Car Equipment: * Chalk * Measuring Tape Diagram: The set up for the radar gun experiment Procedure: 1. A distance of 10m was measured out and marked with chalk. 2. Three markers were used to mark out the distances of 0m, 5m, and 10m. 3. The radar guns settings were changed to 1:1 and km/h.
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As one would observe a garden hose crack easily on a winter day. On the other end of the extreme-extremely high temperatures, I am sure that it would melt the rubber band, loosen the molecular binding force amongst the atoms and cause it to enter a viscose range, liquid like, and not able to stretch at all. My assumption is that the room temperature maybe the most suitable environment to enable the highest performance. Yet knowing that these stages aren't definite periods, hence my hypothesis is that the extremities of heat will decrease the elasticity of the rubber band, whilst close to room temperatures will be the optimal condition for performance, and the mathematical relationship will no be linear, but rather a series of different slopes, resulting on both ends as horizontal lines.
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* Dispersion= when waves spread out through a small opening * Break = when depth of water is slightly greater than the depth of the trough in another wave. * Interference= when two crests or crest and trough add together to cancel out or give a bigger wave. * Swell= regular ocean waves. * White caps = unstable breaking waves caused by the wind A reflected wave has less energy than the original wave. Sound waves * Sound is produced by the energy of vibrating objects.
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Research question: How does the time (T) it takes to complete a swing of a pendulum depend on the length of the string (x)?
-Angle of releasing the pendulum Apparatus used: 2 Stands 3 Clamps 3 Boss heads 1 Protractor 1 String 1 Pendulum 1 Ruler 1 Data-logger 2 Wooden clamps 1 Timer Method: Measuring the variables: To measure the length of the string, it is better to use a long, straight ruler to obtain the data; we should straighten the string and then put it besides the ruler.
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Using a ruler for increased accuracy the string length was kept as consistent as possible. Air Resistance- The amount of air resistance could have been altered by movement, talking, and other changes such as opening and closing the door. These instances could change the flow of air, which could affect the path of motion by the pendulum and change the period. This was kept to a minimum as the room was closed for the most part during the experiment and had no windows, and motion was kept to a minimum. Type of string- The type of string could affect how the pendulum swung due to its weight and thickness, the type of string was kept constant during our experiment.
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Going on other planets helps us to make more conclusions on the structure of the earth and it's atmosphere. The over-reacting greenhouse effect only was discovered after humans were able to break out of the atmosphere. Space exploration has brought up a lot of things we now use in our daily life. Watching TV is now directed by satellites. GPS (Global Positioning System), weather stations are also. Going to space has helped solve a lot of small problems and developed new ideas. Linked with going out of space were some medicine machines like a device for measuring blood pressure, which was invented for the first space mission from the us, or the heart activity monitors that are used in hospitals world wide.
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