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# International Baccalaureate: Physics

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Meet our team of inspirational teachers Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents 1. ## Aim: To investigate the relationship between the angle of a slope incline and the acceleration of a model cart moving down it

do not cancel out. We know that force is equal to mass times acceleration (F = ma) and in this case the force of friction is opposite to the remainder of the force of gravity. F = ma = mg � sine ? - Friction Friction is often defined as a coefficient times the reaction force, (u�R) and we know previously from our examination of the Y axis what R really is, so we have: F = ma = mg � sin ? - u�R = mg � sin ? - u � mg � cosine ?

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2. ## Doppler Effect

To explain and/or derive the Doppler effect for light we must use Special Relativity. So we'll skip that for now. Let's look at the Doppler effect for the case of sound waves: 10.1.2 Construct wavefront diagrams for moving-detector and moving source situations 10.1.3 Derive the equations for the Doppler effect for sound in the cases of a moving detector and a moving source. First lets look at the case of a moving source and stationary observer. The wavelength due to a stationary source is Where v is the velocity of sound in the medium and fs is the frequency of the sound.

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3. ## Finding the Index Of Refraction

43 35 6 48 40 7 50 41 8 57 46 Now, looking at Snell's law where n1sin?1 = n2sin?2 n1 = 1.00 because that's the assigned value for the index of refraction of light in the air.

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4. ## Experiment on looking at enthalpy of solutions

Repeat steps 1-2 again, make sure to have a clean and dry beaker for repetitions. 4. Produce an average temperature produce an average temperature for this solution, as well as a graph of time against average temperature. Make sure to clean and dry the beaker prior to repeating the experiment; this way the test will be fair. 5. From the average temperature, determine ?T (numerical difference before/after the addition of the solute), and do the process for calculating enthalpy change.

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5. ## Physics laboratory: solving units with two different sets of instruments

are the instruments implemented on this work, to demonstrate how small, slight changes of number s, at the end gives up a better or worse answer. E.g. When referring to engineering, a microscopic gap can make the difference between a safe plane flying for many years, and a plane that crashes at a young age. Manipulating so many pieces of data may become confusing, thus a procedure (method)

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6. ## Physics lab - density

length, width and height. In this case the material was a cube, where the measurements were the same and even the uncertainties, thus we can multiplied the uncertainty by 3, i.e.

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7. ## Circular Motion

The velocity will be calculated by using the universally known formula: v = (2?r) / t , where 'v' is the velocity, 'r' is the radius of the string and 't' is the time for one rotation. The main purpose of this experiment is to find out one factor that affects the motion of a rubber stopper in circular motion. In this lab, this factor is the change in radius of the string that is attached to the rubber stopper.

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8. ## Frequency and the Speed of sSound

Turn on tuner and set frequency to 512Hz. Hold it horizontally as close to the open end of the tube as you can. Move the stopper up and down until the sound is coming out the loudest. 3. Measure the distance (L) from the top of the stopper to the open end of the tube. 4. Repeat twice more and record results 5. Repeat steps 1-4 with frequencies of 480, 425, 340, 320 and 256Hz. 6. Record the data.

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9. ## HYdrogen spectrum

The hydrogen lamp was placed in front of the slit. Then the diffraction grating was put at a right angle to the collimator. After the diffraction grating has analyzed the spectrum emitted, visible light was detected and spectral lines were produced at deferent angles. The telescope was rotated from one side of the normal until a focused sharp spectral line is located and the angle was recorded. After that the telescope was rotated to the other side and the angle taken. This short procedure was performed for each color line detected in the series.

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10. ## Muffin forms

Materials: * Measuring tape (� 1 cm; estimated) * Scale 2000 � 1g * Stopwatch ( � 0.10 second; estimated) * Muffin forms Method: 1. A height of 2 meters was measured and marked on the wall. 2. The mass of five muffin forms was measured collectively; they were then released from two meters and the time taken for it to fall was measured. This was repeated 10 times. 3. Five more muffin forms were added to the previous five forms and step two was repeated. 4. In this manner, readings were taken for 15, 20, 25 and 30 muffin forms.

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11. ## Amplitude and period relationship

This would result in a long period of time. For the movement of the ball in the bowl is caused by the inward push exerted by the surface of the bowl. Therefore by increasing the amplitude the time period will increase. Galileo was the first person that studied about pendulums and said about the property of them that the period is not dependent of the amplitude of the swing. But later on Christiaan Huygens found that if an object is going down a curve due to gravity and if period is independent of the amplitude then it should move through a cycloid curve instead of a circular one like in a pendulum.

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12. ## Qatar's Traffic Control Report

If we can slow down the high speed, it would result a peace Qatar roads. I studied numerous sources to find exact reason why the cars company builds vehicles that exceed speed limit. The answers can be divided to two categories, scientific reason and business chance. "Looking at the Law of Inertia, the vehicle requires a lot more force to accelerate than it does to main a steady speed. This extra force required for acceleration allows the car to have a higher top speed." (Dreamer, Web) This scientific reason result the excuse why people need excessive speed limit for safety.

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13. ## Projectiles Lab - From the experiment I conclude that indeed, the range of a projectile does depend on the angle at which it is projected. Moreover, up until around 40-50 degrees,

Trial Distance achieved �1 cm Average distance achieved 1 400 393cm (3.s.f) 2 400 3 380 Band Projected at 45� (�1�) Trial Distance achieved �1 cm Average distance achieved 1 380 386cm (3.s.f) 2 380 3 400 Band Projected at 50� (�1�) Trial Distance achieved �1 cm Average distance achieved 1 370 350cm (3.s.f) 2 360 3 320 Angle that yielded best results: 42� (393cm on average) Data Processing + Presentation Using my results, notably the average distance achieved for the given angle projections, I created a graph from which we can deduce the angle of projection that will hive the largest range.

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14. ## The purpose of this experiment is to determine if the length of the string in the pendulum affects the period of the simple pendulum. The main limitation of this experiment is the air resistance

P = Period Ms = Mass of the string Ls = Length of string ? = Degree the string is released from Mb = Mass of the ball Controlling the variables In order to receive the best results, all of the variables were kept as consistent as possible. A single stopwatch, controlled by one person, was used to measure the time that the pendulum completed one full period.

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15. ## Index of Refraction lab

The slope represents the index of refraction of plexiglass because the index of refraction of air is 1.00. The independent variable in this lab is the angle of the incident ray, the responding is the angle of the refracted ray. The controlled variable include - the intensity of the ray, the position of the plexiglass, and the apparatus. To control the intensity of the ray, use the same type of material. The Plexiglass should be kept at the center of the graph paper nas the apparatus was kept constant by using them again .

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16. ## Hook's law. Aim of the experiment: To understand the Hookes Law by calculating the spring constant of a given spiral spring.

0.130 7 0.250 0.360 0.140 8 0.280 0.365 0.145 9 0.330 0.380 0.160 10 0.350 0.385 0.165 11 0.370 0.390 0.170 12 0.410 0.400 0.180 13 0.430 0.405 0.185 14 0.480 0.420 0.200 15 0.560 0.440 0.220 Table 1: changing lengths for each of the 15 trials with different masses Initial length of the spring = 0.220 m DATA PROCESSING & PRESENTATION Calculations: According to Hooke's Law when a mass is suspended on a spring which has a constant of k, the following equation can be obtained F = m.g = k.x. during the calculations these formula will be used.

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17. ## Solar Panel surface area vs Output Lab

Materials: 5x Solar panels Voltmeter Crocodile clips Datatable Solar panel surface area Voltage Output (V) +/- # of Solar Panels Surface Area (cm�)+/- Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average 1 29.1 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 2 58.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 3 87.3 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.6 4 116.4 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.2 5 145.5 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8 Conclusion The graph clearly shows a linear proportionality between output voltage and surface area of solar panels.

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18. ## Evaluation in Testing the Conservation of Momentum in a Linear Collision

In this experiment, a simple linear collision between a stationary and moving cart occurred. In measuring the distance between each dot before and after the collision with a fifty-millisecond interval, the velocities could be determined. Taking the product of the mass of the moving cart with two weights and the average velocity, results arrived with the total momentum before a collision. Multiplying the sum of the mass of the moving cart and the stationary cart, which had no weights, with the average velocity after the collision, the total momentum after the linear collision was determined.

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19. ## To measure the stiffness of steel by the oscillations of a hacksaw blade

Processing raw data X ?l = �0.100m Average period T per 20 period, s 0.200 8.7011 0.190 8.051 0.180 7.6009 0.170 7.051 0.160 6.126 0.150 5.751 0.140 5.4009 0.130 4.9009 X ?l = �0.100m Oscillate 1 period, s 0.20 0.44 0.19 0.4 0.18 0.38 0.17 0.35 0.16 0.31 0.15 0.29 0.14 0.27 0.13 0.25 Calculation of average S of oscillate 20 period (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 (8.8011+8.6011+8.6011+8.8010)/4 8.7011s Calculation of Oscillate 1 period when X = 0.20m (Average period T)/ 20 (8.7011)/20 0.44s Presenting processed data X ?l = �0.10m Uncert.

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20. ## Oscillating Mass

this load does not exceed the elastic limit: By equating the above two equations, we have: We also know that , where is the period of the oscillating mass. Solving for T, we are able to find: From the above formula, I predict that the only factors which could affect the period T of an oscillating mass are the mass m of the oscillating object, and the spring constant k. If k is kept constant, and m is increased, then the period of oscillation T will also increase, and the oscillating mass is slowed down.

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21. ## Smashing Gliders

Repeat this step 3 times, and record the times in Table 3. Part II: Cart Explosion 1. Measure weight of the two carts and the weight used using a force spring. Record the measurements in Table 1. 2. Place weight on one of the carts. 3. Push the springs of the two carts as closely together and release, start timing. 4. Time both carts using different timers, stop timer when cart stops moving. 5. Measure the distances the cart travels with a meter stick, record measurements in Table 4.

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22. ## Resistance Lab. Aim - To investigate the effective resistance (total resistance) of three resistors connected in a series circuit.

resistance of the three resistors connected in series. Both the above processes were repeated with a different value of current so that an average of the effective (total) resistance of the three resistors connected in series could be calculated for each process. Thus in this way the effective resistance of three resistors connected in series was calculated and verified using two separate processes. > Method - * Variables - 1) Controlled - The entire set of apparatus. 2) Independent - The current used.

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23. ## Physics - Specific Heat Capacity of An Unknown Material Lab Report

Isolating , we get: Once is determined, it can be matched to a published result of a known material, then confirming this match with the density of the unknown material by measuring Volume and Mass and calculating density . Research Question What is the specific heat capacity of an unknown material? Independent Variable , , , Dependent Variable , Controlled Variables , , Hypothesis By varying the independent variables, we can get different values of , and thus produce varying but similar values for .

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24. ## World Energy resources

The rotor of the generator is attached to the shaft, which then produce electrical power (flow of electrons). The following steps show how the fossil fuels are used to produce electricity: Note: The Oil and Gas can be burnt directly but the coal is first crushed to a fine dust and then burned. Advantages Disadvantages Relatively cheap Will run out High energy density or high power output Pollute the environment Variety of engines and devices use them directly and easily Contribute to greenhouse effect by releasing greenhouse gases into atmosphere Extensive distribution network is in place Nuclear Power Nuclear power is power produced from controlled nuclear reactions.

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25. ## Electricity Safety

The movement of electrons produces electricity. There are many ways of finding electricity or getting electrified. There are also many kinds of electric types, for example static electricity. To learn about static electricity you have to learn about the nature of matter. In other words, what is all the stuff around us made of? If you walk across a rug, and reach for the doorknob you will receive a static electric shock. Or, if you come inside from the cold, pull off your hat and all your hair stands on end.

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