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AIM: To find the specific heat capacity of a solid by method of mixtures.

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Introduction

To Measure Specific Heat Capacity of a solid by method of mixtures Date: - February 2, 2009 IB Topic: - Core 3.2.1 Assessment Criteria:- Data Collection & Processing Conclusion & Evaluation ASPECT 1 MARKS AWARDED RECORDING RAW DATA PROCESSING RAW DATA PRESENTING PROCESSED DATA TOTAL ASPECT 2 MARKS AWARDED CONCLUSION EVALUATING PROCEDURES IMPROVING THE INVESTIGATION TOTAL AIM: To find the specific heat capacity of a solid by method of mixtures. Materials Required: calorimeter, Thermometer (110 ° c), stopwatch, weighing machine. Background Theory: 1. Specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 Kg of that substance by 1° c. 2. Thermal equilibrium is a state when the amount of heat given by one body to another is equal to the amount of heat energy given by second body to the first and the temperatures remain constant. Data Collection: Least count of Thermometer: 1°C Uncertainty of Thermometer: 0.5°C Least count of Weighing Scale: 0.1g = 0.0001kg Uncertainty of Weighing Scale: 0.1g = 0.0001kg Mass of metal: 24.6 ± 0.0001 kg Mass of copper calorimeter: 42.5 ± 0.0001 kg Specific Heat Capacity of water: 4186 J kg-1 °C-1

Middle

0.0246±0.0001 kg * C1 * 70±1 °C = (0.05±0.0001 kg * 4186 J kg-1 °C-1 * 3±1 °C)+(0.0425±0.0001 kg * 390 J kg-1 °C-1 * 3 ± 1 °C) 0.0246 ± 0.0001 * C1 * 70 ± 1 = (0.05 ± 0.0001 * 4186 * 3 ± 1) + (0.0425 ± 0.0001 * 390 * 3 ± 1) 1.722 ± 0.057 * C1 = (627.9 ± 210.5) + (49.725 ± 16.69) 1.722 ± 0.057 * C1 = 677.625 ± 227.19 C1= C1= 393.5104 ± 144.96 J kg-1 °C-1 Case 2: Change in temperature of Calorimeter and Water: 26 ± 0.5 - 24 ± 0.5 °C 2 ± 1 °C Change in temperature of metal: 95 ± 0.5 - 24 ± 0.5 °C 71 ± 1 °C Heat Lost = Heat Gained Mass of metal*SIC of metal*change in temperature of metal=(mass of water*SIC of water*change in temperature of water)+(mass of calorimeter*SIC of copper*change in temperature of calorimeter) 0.0246±0.0001 kg * C2 * 71±1 °C = (0.08±0.0001 kg * 4186 J kg-1 °C-1 * 2±1 °C)+(0.0425±0.0001 kg * 390 J kg-1 °C-1 * 2 ± 1 °C)

Conclusion

+ (74.588 ± 16.75) 1.685 ± 0.031 * C3 = 639.698 ± 144.21 C3= C3= 379.643 ± 92.57 J kg-1 °C-1 Average heat capacity of a metal = = = Specific Heat Capacity of Metal= 391.8353 ± 100 J kg-1 °C-1 Percentage Uncertainty= Uncertainty/SHC found*100 = 100/391*100 = 25.64% Conclusion : From this experiment we can conclude that the specific heat capacity of copper = 391.8353 ± 1oo J approx. Possible errors: 1. Systematic Error in the measurement of variables in instruments such as the thermometer and the weighing scale. The extent is represented by the uncertainty. 2. Improper isolation may have led to the system trying to attain equilibrium with the atmosphere and thus reducing the overall final temperature of the system. 3. A lot of heat could be lost during the transfer of the solid metal block to the calorimeter 4. There could be parallax error while reading the thermometer. Possible ways of reducing such errors: 1. Usage of branded instruments to assure accuracy. 2. Using digital thermometers to prevent parallax error and reducing the uncertainty. 3. Making the transfer of the metal block quickly so that very less heat energy is escaped. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 H1 :- Specific Heat Capacity Of Water Candidate Name: - Anurag Saboo Session No. :-

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