• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Aim: To investigate the conservation of kinetic energy and the conservation of momentum in an oblique collisions between two objects.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Lab: Oblique Collisions in Two Dimensions

Aim:

        To investigate the conservation of kinetic energy and the conservation of momentum in an oblique collisions between two objects.

Hypothesis:

        By law of conservation the momentum and kinetic energy should be conserved in an oblique collision between two objects however in our case I hypothesize there will be a slight difference due to the fact that the system is not isolated and forces from outside will act upon it.  With regards to kinetic energy, the total energy must also remain constant throughout the collision, however calculations won’t take into account the kinetic energy converted to other forms of energy, like heat energy.  

Despite the fact that the metal spheres used in this experiment are indeed very hard and very elastic, the collision will not be perfectly elastic but partially elastic, meaning a percentage of the kinetic energy and momentum will be converted during the experiment.  Total momentum in any collision does not change, even if the individual momentums do.  

Momentum is defined as: mass × velocity

The kinetic energy is defined as = ½ mass x velocity²

        Momentum has the special property that it is always conserved, even in collisions. Kinetic energy, on the other hand, is not conserved in collisions if they are inelastic

...read more.

Middle

46.2 cm

To find initial momentum,

        We must have the velocity, and in order to have that we must have the time.

S = ½ at² ,       isolate the t, we then have     t = √2s / g         where g = gravity = 9.8 m/s²

Therefore we have, t = √ 2(0.824) / 9.8            then t = 0.410 s (3.s.f)

Using the formula, s = vt, we can isolate velocity, v = s/t, v= (0.462m / 0.410s) = 1.12m/s

Now that we have our velocity and mass for our initial incident ball, we can find the momentum of the system by the formula p = mv

So we get p = 6.8g  x (1.12m/s)                    = 7.61 gm/s as the momentum for the system

To find initial kinetic energy,

        We use the formula = ½ mass x velocit²y. In order to get the answer in easy to use joules, the mass must be in kilograms and the velocity in m/s The mass we know as .0068 grams and the velocity as 1.12, therefore we get:

                                        ½ x .0068 x (1.12) ²               =  .0043 joules

Results for Trail 2,

        In this case, the incident ball hit the target ball head on, giving the following results

        For incident ball (6.8 grams): s = 0.17 meters    t = 0.41 seconds   v = 0.424… m/s

P = 2.9 gm/s       Ek = 0.00061 joules

        For target ball (4.4 grams): s = 0.41 meters    t = 0.41 seconds   v = 1 m/s

P = 4.4 gm/s       Ek = 0.0022 joules

        Total momentum = 7.3 gm/s         Total Kinetic Energy = .0028 J

Results for Trail 3,

        In this case, the incident ball hit the target ball at an angle (65º), giving the following results

...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation

        The sources of error in this experiment included several factors.  First of all, only one trial was performed for each of the procedures increasing the likelihood of a mistake.  The kinetic energy lost to heat could not actually be found and added on to the final KE making some of the statements about the final KE false.  Also concerns arose about the accuracy of measurements since we had several problems with measuring angles and distances from the point of impact to the points of landing, and often times we had to round digits greatly.  The paper itself on which we recorded the results was often accidentally shifted which caused another error to the distances.          

        If granted another opportunity to repeat this experiment, I would certainly change some things.  I would perform more trials for each of the procedures and then find the more consistent and reliable results.  Also I would prefer to work with the graphing paper itself instead of duplicating scaled vectors, and present it in this lab investigation, but since there was more than one person in my lab group, the sheet would have to be photocopied several times.  Also I would advise to make sure the sheet of paper does not move at all and that an eye is kept at all times on which sphere made which mark.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Physics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Physics essays

  1. Lab Report " Which fuel is the better source of energy?

    During the process of the experiment there were some difficulties that we came across which possibly could have affected the results of the mass of the spirit burners after the 3 minute burning procedure. It was challenging to take the spirit burner out of the beaker because the tongs were

  2. In this extended essay, I will be investigating projectile motion via studying the movement ...

    Therefore, the vertical acceleration of the metal ball will be considered as constant throughout the entire trajectory and the vertical motion of metal ball is considerded to be under free fall after projection. Note that the vertical component of projection velocity of metal ball is zero as the metal ball

  1. Energy density experiment - Aim: To determine the energy density of ethanol

    Evaluation: The results conducted from this experiment is judged to be unreliable as heat was able to easily escape mainly because not 100% of the energy was transferred to the water from burning the ethanol as it is most likely that other objects absorbed the energy or it was lost to the atmosphere.

  2. Suspension Bridges. this extended essay is an investigation to study the variation in tension ...

    he sees objects at rest such as on top of a table or fixed to a wall, he concludes that because the object is at rest, hence there is no force acting on it. However, that is a misconception that there is no force acting on the object.

  1. Evaluation in Testing the Conservation of Momentum in a Linear Collision

    Secondly, another human error includes misreading the increments on the equipments such as the ruler used to measure the distance between the points. Another limitation is the restriction to only one trial being conducted. This limitation made the experiment vulnerable to many undetected random errors.

  2. Investigation into the relationship between acceleration and the angle of free fall downhill

    The line of the graphs should theoretically pass through the origin (intersect Y at 0). The uncertainties made it not possible for the line to do so, as the values for c in the line equations were 0.197 and -0.384 respectively.

  1. Experiment to compare the radiation of heat from different objects.

    level from which the temperatures can be recorded for all the other observations to. Room temperature- for this variable we must always check the room temperature after regular intervals. If one is performing an experiment under an AC , then the person must set the temperature at which he or

  2. Rolling objects down a ramp Physics LAB

    (114 cm/s) a= 0.068m/s () Therefore velocity is 0.114 m/s and acceleration is 0.068 400.1 g = 3.22 N (weight) Therefore force of static friction is approximately 6.624 N and the force of friction is approximately 6.624 N Sources of Error 1.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work