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Energy Density of Ethanol

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

image00.png


Results:

Table 1. Uncertainties of the Equipments

Equipments

Uncertainties

Electronic Weight

±0.010g

100ml Measuring Cylinder

±1.0ml

Thermometer

±0.20°C

Table 2. Measurement of the Equipments

Equipments

Measurement

Empty Spirit Burner

127.27g±0.010g

Filled Spirit Burner

164.22g±0.010g

Table 3. Raw Data

Trials

Initial Weight of the Spirit Burner (g±0.010g)

Final Weight of the Spirit Burner (±0.010g)

Initial Reading of the Thermometer (°C ±0.20°C)

Final Reading of the Thermometer (°C ±0.20°C)

1

164.22

163.58

24

54

2

163.58

162.87

24

54

3

162.87

162.24

24

54

4

162.24

161.56

24

54

5

161.56

160.84

24

54

6

160.84

160.10

24

54

7

160.10

159.47

24

54


Calculations:

Amount of ethanol in the spirit burner can be calculated by;

Amount of Ethanol        = Filled spirit burner – Empty spirit burner

                        = 164.22 – 127.27

                        ≈ 37g ± 0.020g

        Uncertainty        = 164.22g±0.01g – 127.22g±0.01

                        = (164.22g – 127.22g) ± (0.01 + 0.01)

                        = 36.95g ± 0.020g

                        ≈ 37g ± 0.020g

Table 5. Processing Raw Data

Trials

Calculations

Results

1

164.22 – 163.58 = 0.64

54 – 24 = 30

Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.64g±0.020g

Change in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C

2

163.58 – 162.87 = 0.71

54 – 24 = 30

Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.71g±0.02g

Change in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C

3

162.87 – 162.24 = 0.63

54 – 24 = 30

...read more.

Middle

Change in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C

6

160.84 – 160.10 = 0.74

54 – 24 = 30

Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.74g±0.020g

Change in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C

7

160.10 – 159.47 = 0.63

54 – 24 = 30

Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.63g±0.020g

Change in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C

Uncertainties for change in mass of spirit burner

Change in mass of spirit burner        = initial mass – final mass

                                        = 164.22g±0.01g – 163.58g±0.01g

                                        = (164.22 – 163.58) ± (0.01+0.01)

                                        = 0.64g±0.02g

Uncertainties for change in temperature

Change in temperature        = final reading – initial reading

                                = 54°C±0.2°C - 24°±0.2C°

                                = (54 – 24) ± (0.2+0.2)

                                = 30°C±0.4°C

        Table 5. Average of the Data

Data

Calculations

Average

Change in mass of spirit burner

image01.png

image02.pngimage02.png

 = 0.68

image05.pngimage05.png

image06.png

0.68g±0.020g

Change in temperature

image01.png

image07.pngimage07.png

= 30

image03.pngimage03.png

image04.png

30°C±0.40°C

As shown from above, the average change in the mass of the spirit burner is 0.68g±0.02g, which indicates that there was 0.68g±0.02g of ethanol was used to heat water to have temperature difference of 30°C. This needs to be changed into Kelvin as the formula requires the temperature to be in Kelvin. As the 30°C is the temperature difference, therefore the temperature difference in Kelvin will be 30K.

With this information, it is possible to find out the energy density of ethanol. Energy density is amount of energy produced per kilogram.

...read more.

Conclusion

Improvements:

Limitations

Effects on Experiments

Improvements

The usage of thermometer

Used standard mercury lab thermometer therefore there will be a uncertainty reading the temperature

Use GLX with the thermometer cable in order to gain more viable data compared to thermometer

Heat loss

Heat loss due to the surrounding affects the heat flowing into water because the heat is also being used up within the process of heating water

Create a wall, made out of cooking foil, around the spirit burner and the beaker to reduce heat flowing out and allowing heat to transfer directly to the beaker

The number of trials performed due to lack of time

As the number of trials increases, then the uncertainty will be reduced as there are more data points and allows cutting out data which are out of the range.

Perform the experiment over a large quantity of times.

No temperature difference

As there was no change in temperature difference, no graph was able to be created.

By having a change in temperature difference and create a graph, then more accurate data would be gained.

Room atmosphere

The room atmosphere varies therefore affects the flame

Try to create closest condition to STP by turning off the air conditioner and closed windows

Bibliography:

Thomas, George. Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program [pdf]. Hydrogen Program Review. San Ramon, CA. May9-11, 2000.

...read more.

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