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Energy Density of Ethanol

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Results:

Table 1. Uncertainties of the Equipments

 Equipments Uncertainties Electronic Weight ±0.010g 100ml Measuring Cylinder ±1.0ml Thermometer ±0.20°C

Table 2. Measurement of the Equipments

 Equipments Measurement Empty Spirit Burner 127.27g±0.010g Filled Spirit Burner 164.22g±0.010g

Table 3. Raw Data

 Trials Initial Weight of the Spirit Burner (g±0.010g) Final Weight of the Spirit Burner (±0.010g) Initial Reading of the Thermometer (°C ±0.20°C) Final Reading of the Thermometer (°C ±0.20°C) 1 164.22 163.58 24 54 2 163.58 162.87 24 54 3 162.87 162.24 24 54 4 162.24 161.56 24 54 5 161.56 160.84 24 54 6 160.84 160.10 24 54 7 160.10 159.47 24 54

Calculations:

Amount of ethanol in the spirit burner can be calculated by;

Amount of Ethanol        = Filled spirit burner – Empty spirit burner

= 164.22 – 127.27

≈ 37g ± 0.020g

Uncertainty        = 164.22g±0.01g – 127.22g±0.01

= (164.22g – 127.22g) ± (0.01 + 0.01)

= 36.95g ± 0.020g

≈ 37g ± 0.020g

Table 5. Processing Raw Data

 Trials Calculations Results 1 164.22 – 163.58 = 0.6454 – 24 = 30 Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.64g±0.020gChange in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C 2 163.58 – 162.87 = 0.7154 – 24 = 30 Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.71g±0.02gChange in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C 3 162.87 – 162.24 = 0.6354 – 24 = 30

Middle

Change in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C

6

160.84 – 160.10 = 0.74

54 – 24 = 30

Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.74g±0.020g

Change in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C

7

160.10 – 159.47 = 0.63

54 – 24 = 30

Change in mass of the spirit burner = 0.63g±0.020g

Change in temperature of the water = 30°C±0.40°C

Uncertainties for change in mass of spirit burner

Change in mass of spirit burner        = initial mass – final mass

= 164.22g±0.01g – 163.58g±0.01g

= (164.22 – 163.58) ± (0.01+0.01)

= 0.64g±0.02g

Uncertainties for change in temperature

= 54°C±0.2°C - 24°±0.2C°

= (54 – 24) ± (0.2+0.2)

= 30°C±0.4°C

Table 5. Average of the Data

 Data Calculations Average Change in mass of spirit burner = 0.68 0.68g±0.020g Change in temperature = 30 30°C±0.40°C

As shown from above, the average change in the mass of the spirit burner is 0.68g±0.02g, which indicates that there was 0.68g±0.02g of ethanol was used to heat water to have temperature difference of 30°C. This needs to be changed into Kelvin as the formula requires the temperature to be in Kelvin. As the 30°C is the temperature difference, therefore the temperature difference in Kelvin will be 30K.

With this information, it is possible to find out the energy density of ethanol. Energy density is amount of energy produced per kilogram.

Conclusion

Improvements:

 Limitations Effects on Experiments Improvements The usage of thermometer Used standard mercury lab thermometer therefore there will be a uncertainty reading the temperature Use GLX with the thermometer cable in order to gain more viable data compared to thermometer Heat loss Heat loss due to the surrounding affects the heat flowing into water because the heat is also being used up within the process of heating water Create a wall, made out of cooking foil, around the spirit burner and the beaker to reduce heat flowing out and allowing heat to transfer directly to the beaker The number of trials performed due to lack of time As the number of trials increases, then the uncertainty will be reduced as there are more data points and allows cutting out data which are out of the range. Perform the experiment over a large quantity of times. No temperature difference As there was no change in temperature difference, no graph was able to be created. By having a change in temperature difference and create a graph, then more accurate data would be gained. Room atmosphere The room atmosphere varies therefore affects the flame Try to create closest condition to STP by turning off the air conditioner and closed windows

Bibliography:

Thomas, George. Overview of Storage Development DOE Hydrogen Program [pdf]. Hydrogen Program Review. San Ramon, CA. May9-11, 2000.

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