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Investigating Magnetic Pendulum

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Introduction

IB Physics

HL

IA Report:

Investigating Magnetic pendulum

image00.png

Submitted to:                             Mr. Usama Moud

Submitted on:                             Feb-3-2009

Candidate Name:                   Ali Ayaz Gajani

Candidate Session no:      001307-015

School Name:                           The International School

School code:                            001307

Investigation of the Magnetic Pendulum:

Every magnet has two poles, North and South. When it is hung freely, it always settles in the direction North and South of the Earth. The following experiment is about the properties of magnetic pendulum. In all experiments find the time period of oscillation, and find relation in the direction of vibration and the time period of pendulum.

Hypothesis: The effect of changing the vibration direction of magnetic pendulum on time period of the 20 constant oscillations.

Apparatus:

  1. Color indicated lab magnets
  2. Strings and threads
  3. Solution Tape (Transparent)
  4. Measuring Scale (1 feet)
  5. Set of compasses
  6. Lab stand
  7. Stopwatch
  8. Scissors

Methodology: A

For Single magnetic pendulum investigation:

  1. Hang a bar magnet horizontally using the thread string, tied in balance with the lab stand. The thread should be strongly tied with the magnet & stand.
  1. Make sure the magnet is not rotating from its point of centre. This is done in order to allow precise timed readings, as the oscillation progresses smoothly.
  1. Use two or more compasses to check the North. Keep the compasses at a 1 meter distance from the magnets to avoid unnecessary deflection
  1. Vibrate it in the direction as shown in the diagrams below.
  1. Repeat steps 1-2 for varying directions

Note:

...read more.

Middle

22.12 secs

3

22.10 secs

Average

21.96 secs

image11.png

Comparison chart for varying directions

Direction A

Direction B

Direction C

Direction D

21.65 secs

21.85 secs

21.48 secs

21.96 secs

Analysis:

As per the results of the investigation, the change in the direction of vibration of the magnet for 20 oscillations does not affect the time period of the oscillation. As we can see he comparison chart above, the values for directions A, B, C and D are almost same, with very minuscule micro second differences. The possible uncertainty here can be human error in timing the experiment and secondly, the quality of magnets i.e. minor change in size and weight. Moreover, the balance of the string attached was not at most in perfect form, hence the unnecessary rotating of the magnets from the point of tied knot must have affected the time period readings. Hence, the part 1 of the investigation comes to suggests that the change in direction of the vibration of the magnet does not affect the time period of the oscillations.

Part 2:      _                                                                Pole Combination A

Methodology: B

For Dual magnetic pendulum investigation:

  1. Hang a bar magnet horizontally with the help of two strings.
  1. Now put another magnet just below the hanging magnet, in the same direction as the hanging magnet, with similar poles facing each others.
  1. Using the thread string, tied in balance with the lab stand. The thread should be strongly tied with the magnet & stand.
  1. Make sure the magnet is not rotating from its point of centre. This is done in order to allow precise timed readings, as the oscillation progresses smoothly.
  1. Change the distance between the two magnets, keeping the oscillations constant at 20 and then note the change in the time period.
  1. Now, vibrate the magnet (for different directions) with small amplitude, first along the length then along with width. Measure the time period of vibration. Also find the rate of decrease in the amplitude of vibration.
  1. Repeat 1-6 for varying direction combinations.

Note:image01.png

Readings are for vibration along the width only.

Distance b/w two magnets = 1.0 cm

No. of readings

Time period for 20 osc.

1

16.68 secs

2

15.66 secs

3

16.32 secs

Average

16.22 secs

image12.png

Distance b/w two magnets = 1.6 cm

No. of readings

Time period for 20 osc.

1

18.31 secs

2

18.25 secs

3

18.72 secs

Average

18.42 secs

image13.pngimage01.png

Comparison Chart for N-N to S-S pole combinations with varying distance between stationery magnet and dynamic magnet.

d=1.0 cm

d=1.6 cm

16.22 secs

18.42 secs

...read more.

Conclusion

d=1.0 cm

d=1.6 cm

16.22 secs

18.42 secs

Analysis:

There is a difference between the varying pole combinations at d=1.6 cm, with a N-N to S-S pole combination magnet vibration taking +2 seconds longer than the N-S to S-N pole combination. What can be the reason behind this? Why is the N-S to S-N pole combination much quicker in terms of time period as compared to its counterpart pole combination, even at the same number of oscillations taking into consideration along with the distance between the magnets?

However, we there is one important relation that has been deduced from part 2)b) of this dual magnet investigation. At d=1.0cm, the N-N to S-S pole combinations take 16.22 seconds i.e. 1 time period for their 20 oscillations. In contrast to that, at d=1.0 cm N-S to S-N pole combinations take 16.22 seconds for the same number of oscillations. What is the physics behind this? Well, here is my interpretation:

Postulate 1:

In N-N to S-S pole combinations, the magnetic poles are repelled, which means the force of attraction is going upwards, which is against the force of attraction of earth’s gravity.

Postulate 2:

In N-S to S-N pole combinations, the magnetic poles are attracted, which means the force of attraction is going downward, which is towards the force of attraction of earth’s gravity, hence the gravitational field force assists the oscillation to be carried out at a faster pace. This in result decreases the time period.

Graphical representation of postulates:

A

image17.png

B

image05.pngimage06.png

C

image07.png


Live Experiment Images
image02.png

image08.jpg

image09.jpg

The End

...read more.

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