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# Investigating resistors

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigating resistors

Aim:

• EM-5: to investigate the effect of potential difference on current in a carbon         resistor
• EM-6: to investigate how the addition of resistors in parallel or series affects the voltage and current in a circuit
• EM-7: To determine the total effective resistance of a combination of resistors in series and parallel
• From all EM-5, EM-6 and EM-7 are aimed to compare the results collected from the data (current and potential difference)

Hypothesis:

When we put all resistors together in series it will has greater effectiveness than in parllel because circuit all resistors will have same current but they will have different voltage. In parallel, resistors will have same voltage but different in current. In total series (R1+R2+R3) and in total parallel (). To calculate voltage = current (I) vs resistance (R)

Variables:

 Dependent Independent Controlled Voltage and current in each resistors Resistors Amperemeter and voltmeter used Potential difference in each resistors measured by using voltmeter Number of resistors in circuit Temperature is kept the same Potential difference (V) from power supply Constantly used amperemeter in series connection and set up to always get in positive current Values of resistance in resistors

Apparatus

 Items Quantity Accuracy Power Supply 1 Voltmeter 1 Amperemeter 1 Resistor As needed Connector table or wire As needed Circuit breadboard As needed

Methods:

EM-5:

1. Connect the circuit as chosen
2. Set power supply to 3 v and measure the potential difference and current in the circuit
3. Change the supplied voltage to 6, 9, and 12 v and measure potential difference and current
4. Repeat the above for some trials

EM-6: parallel

EM-6: series

EM-7:

EM-6:

• Resistors in series
1. Set up all materials as shown in diagram

Middle

4.7×10

4.7×10

1.41×10

6.36

0.45

6.345

6.345

6.345

Table3. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

 R1() ΔR ±0.5% R2 ()ΔR ±0.5% R3()ΔR ±0.5% Rt() ΔR ±0.5% Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA V1 (V) ΔV ±0.005v V2 (V) ΔV ±0.005v V3 (V) ΔV ±0.005v 820 820 6.36 7.7 6.314 820 820 1640 6.36 3.9 6.396 6.396 820 820 470 2130 6.36 3.0 6.390 6.390 6.390

Table4. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

 R1() ΔR ±0.5% R2 ()ΔR ±0.5% R3()ΔR ±0.5% Rt() ΔR ±0.5% Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA V1 (V) ΔV ±0.005v V2 (V) ΔV ±0.005v V3 (V) ΔV ±0.005v 100 100 6.36 6.36 6.36 100 820 920 6.36 6.90 6.35 6.35 100 820 680 1600 6.36 4.00 6.40 6.40 6.40

Table5. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

 R1() ΔR ±0.5% R2 ()ΔR ±0.5% R3()ΔR ±0.5% Rt() ΔR ±0.5% Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA V1 (V) ΔV ±0.005v V2 (V) ΔV ±0.005v V3 (V) ΔV ±0.005v 820 820 6.36 7.7 6.314 820 820 1640 6.36 3.9 6.396 6.396 820 820 820 2460 6.36 2.6 6.396 6.396 6.396

EM-6: Parallel

Table1. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

 R1() ΔR ±0.5% R2 ()ΔR ±0.5% R3()ΔR ±0.5% Rt() ΔR ±0.5% Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA I1    ΔI ±0.005 mA I2      ΔI ±0.005mA I3     ΔI ±0.005mA 4.7×10 4.7×10 6.36 1.3 1.3 4.7×10 2×10 1402 6.36 4.54 1.3 3.2 4.7×10 2×10 6.8×10 1163 6.36 5.5 1.3 3.2 0.93

Table2. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

 R1() ΔR ±0.5% R2 ()ΔR ±0.5% R3()ΔR ±0.5% Rt () ΔR ±0.5% Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA I1    ΔI ±0.005 mA I2      ΔI ±0.005mA I3     ΔI ±0.005mA 1.2×10 1.2×10 6.36 0.53 0.53 - - 1.2×10 2×10 7.5×10 6.36 0.85 0.53 0.32 - 1.2×10 2×10 1×10 5454.54 6.36 1.17 0.53 0.32 0.32

Table3. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

 R1() ΔR ±0.5% R2 ()ΔR ±0.5% R3()ΔR ±0.5% Rt () ΔR ±0.5%

Conclusion

From the result that was gotten from this experiment and the results have been calculated using formula as stated before, there was slightly difference. This might be was caused by power loss and resistance of the wire. Other possibility was because the resistance of ampere meter was zero and that’s infinite as voltmeter which will never be gotten in the results. The difficulties in this experiment were very usual in setting up the circuit especially in setting in parallel and combination circuit. We didn’t usual to do this kind of experiment. It was also making some mistake in conducting the experiment with a lot of variants or changes. In this experiment, we didn’t usual to read how many ohms in the resistor because we weren’t expert in this experiment.

Overall, this experiment is success with the result of calculation. In the results which slightly difference that was because of power loss. My suggestion is to use a small wire to make less chance to the power loss by reducing resistance from large area. The other suggestion is to be more careful and practice better in conducting this kind of experiment and learn again about how to set up the circuit and read each resistor. Those suggestions will improve the results and make more trials because faster and longer time. By doing this experiment, there should be an effect to our experience in doing all kind of electro. My suggestion may improve a lot if we will do this kind of experiment again.

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