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Investigating resistors

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Introduction

Investigating resistors

Aim:

  • EM-5: to investigate the effect of potential difference on current in a carbon         resistor
  • EM-6: to investigate how the addition of resistors in parallel or series affects the voltage and current in a circuit
  • EM-7: To determine the total effective resistance of a combination of resistors in series and parallel
  • From all EM-5, EM-6 and EM-7 are aimed to compare the results collected from the data (current and potential difference)

Hypothesis:

        When we put all resistors together in series it will has greater effectiveness than in parllel because circuit all resistors will have same current but they will have different voltage. In parallel, resistors will have same voltage but different in current. In total series (R1+R2+R3) and in total parallel (image00.png). To calculate voltage = current (I) vs resistance (R)

Variables:

Dependent

Independent

Controlled

Voltage and current in each resistors

Resistors

Amperemeter and voltmeter used

Potential difference in each resistors measured by using voltmeter

Number of resistors in circuit

Temperature is kept the same

Potential difference (V) from power supply

Constantly used amperemeter in series connection and set up to always get in positive current

Values of resistance in resistors

Apparatus

Items

Quantity

Accuracy

Power Supply

1

Voltmeter

1

Amperemeter

1

Resistor

As needed

Connector table or wire

As needed

Circuit breadboard

As needed

Methods:

EM-5:

  1. Connect the circuit as chosen image01.jpg
  2. Set power supply to 3 v and measure the potential difference and current in the circuit
  3. Change the supplied voltage to 6, 9, and 12 v and measure potential difference and current
  4. Repeat the above for some trials

EM-6: parallel

image09.jpg

EM-6: series

image12.jpg

EM-7:

image14.jpg

EM-6:

  • Resistors in series
  1. Set up all materials as shown in diagram
...read more.

Middle

4.7×10image04.png

4.7×10image04.png

1.41×10image10.png

6.36

0.45

6.345

6.345

6.345

Table3. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

R1(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

R2 (image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

R3(image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

Rt(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v

Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA

V1 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

V2 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

V3 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

820

820

6.36

7.7

6.314

820

820

1640

6.36

3.9

6.396

6.396

820

820

470

2130

6.36

3.0

6.390

6.390

6.390

Table4. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

R1(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

R2 (image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

R3(image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

Rt(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v

Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA

V1 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

V2 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

V3 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

100

100

6.36

6.36

6.36

100

820

920

6.36

6.90

6.35

6.35

100

820

680

1600

6.36

4.00

6.40

6.40

6.40

Table5. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

R1(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

R2 (image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

R3(image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

Rt(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v

Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA

V1 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

V2 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

V3 (V) ΔV ±0.005v

820

820

6.36

7.7

6.314

820

820

1640

6.36

3.9

6.396

6.396

820

820

820

2460

6.36

2.6

6.396

6.396

6.396

EM-6: Parallel

Table1. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

R1(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

R2 (image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

R3(image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

Rt(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v

Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA

I1    ΔI ±0.005 mA

I2      ΔI ±0.005mA

I3     ΔI ±0.005mA

4.7×10image04.png

4.7×10image04.png

6.36

1.3

1.3

4.7×10image04.png

2×10image04.png

1402

6.36

4.54

1.3

3.2

4.7×10image04.png

2×10image04.png

6.8×10image04.png

1163

6.36

5.5

1.3

3.2

0.93

Table2. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

R1(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

R2 (image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

R3(image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

Rt (image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

Vs (V) ΔV ±0.005v

Current I (mA) ΔI±0.5 mA

I1    ΔI ±0.005 mA

I2      ΔI ±0.005mA

I3     ΔI ±0.005mA

1.2×10image06.png

1.2×10image06.png

6.36

0.53

0.53

-

-

1.2×10image06.png

2×10image06.png

7.5×10image04.png

6.36

0.85

0.53

0.32

-

1.2×10image06.png

2×10image06.png

1×10image06.png

5454.54

6.36

1.17

0.53

0.32

0.32

Table3. Table of resistance, voltage, and current

R1(image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

R2 (image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

R3(image03.png)

ΔR ±0.5%

Rt (image03.png) ΔR ±0.5%

...read more.

Conclusion

        From the result that was gotten from this experiment and the results have been calculated using formula as stated before, there was slightly difference. This might be was caused by power loss and resistance of the wire. Other possibility was because the resistance of ampere meter was zero and that’s infinite as voltmeter which will never be gotten in the results. The difficulties in this experiment were very usual in setting up the circuit especially in setting in parallel and combination circuit. We didn’t usual to do this kind of experiment. It was also making some mistake in conducting the experiment with a lot of variants or changes. In this experiment, we didn’t usual to read how many ohms in the resistor because we weren’t expert in this experiment.

        Overall, this experiment is success with the result of calculation. In the results which slightly difference that was because of power loss. My suggestion is to use a small wire to make less chance to the power loss by reducing resistance from large area. The other suggestion is to be more careful and practice better in conducting this kind of experiment and learn again about how to set up the circuit and read each resistor. Those suggestions will improve the results and make more trials because faster and longer time. By doing this experiment, there should be an effect to our experience in doing all kind of electro. My suggestion may improve a lot if we will do this kind of experiment again.

...read more.

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