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# Muffin forms

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Introduction

Muffin forms Research question: How is the average velocity of a falling muffin form, released from 2 meters, affected by its mass? Hypothesis: Increase in the mass of the muffin form results in an increase in its velocity while falling. Controlled variables: Release height, air resistances Independent variables: Mass of muffin form Dependent variables: Average velocity Controlling variables: 1. 2 meters was measured and a mark was put on the wall from where the bottom of the muffin form was to be released. It was ascertained that the line of sight lied at the same level as the mark on the wall. 2. Air resistance was controlled by having the same muffin forms all the time so that the surface area remains the same, and mass was added inside that form. It should be noted that if the average velocity is affected by the mass, we cannot control the air resistance completely. Materials: * Measuring tape (� 1 cm; estimated) ...read more.

Middle

0.81 0.78 0.82 0.76 0.80 0.78 0.82 0.76 0.83 0.80 25 10 � 10.0% 0.72 0.68 0.65 0.70 0.66 0.71 0.68 0.72 0.73 0.70 0.70 30 12� 8.33% 0.64 0.66 0.62 0.68 0.63 0.60 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.64 Calculating uncertainty: Mass: The uncertainty of the scale is 2000 � 1 g; Mass 1: 1/2 �100 = 50.0% Mass 2: 1/4 �100 = 25.0% Mass 3: 1/6 �100 = 16.7% Mass 4: 1/8 �100 = 12.5% Mass 5: 1/10 �100 = 10.0% Mass 6: 1/12 �100 = 8.33% Time: The uncertainty of the stopwatch is estimated as � 0.10 second; as ten readings were taken for every mass, the uncertainty becomes: 0.10/10 = 0.01 �100 = 1% Velocity: velocity = displacement / time; Displacement: the estimated uncertainty of the measuring tape: � 1 cm; Displacement: 2 meters = 200 cm; so: 1/200 �100 = 0.5% Time: the calculated uncertainty in time is 1% The uncertainty in velocity then becomes: 0.5% + 1% = 1.5% Table 2: Average velocity (displacement/time) ...read more.

Conclusion

and attains a velocity known as terminal velocity. For lighter objects, the forces of gravity and air resistance take a much shorter time to equalize each other compared to heavier objects; therefore, it takes a longer time for lighter objects to reach the earth since they attain their terminal velocity much earlier due to their weight and stop accelerating. Whereas, the force of gravity tends to be greater for heavier objects due to their weight and makes them accelerate; as a result they reach their terminal velocity much later. This explanation could be the reason why 30 muffin forms took a shorter time (higher velocity) to reach the ground compared to 5 muffin forms. A limitation in the experiment was that the scale could not show any values beyond 1 g; it would be a good improvement to use a more sensitive scale for objects as light as muffin forms. The sensitivity of the measuring tape and stopwatch were quite reasonable. ?? ?? ?? ?? 08-01-10 IB3, Katedralskolan Shiba Younus 1 ...read more.

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