• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Pendulum Motion

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Physics Design Lab

Pendulum Motion


PURPOSE:

To determine the relationship between the period of a pendulum and various factors, assessed individually, which are the mass of the pendulum, length of the attached string, and angle of release.

THEORY AND HYPOTHESIS:

Many factors affect the swinging motion of a pendulum. My design lab intends to reach a conclusion on the factors that do, and do not, affect the motion of a pendulum. I hypothesize that the mass of the pendulum will not affect the period because the acceleration of gravity is the same for all masses on Earth. The length of the string will affect the period because it affects the distance that the pendulum travels. The angle of release should also affect the period because it also changes the distance the pendulum travels in a period.

MATERIALS:

  • ruler
  • string cotton
  • pen
  • masking tape
  • ring stand
  • ring clamp
  • weights (15g, 20g, 60g, 100g, 200g, 500g)
  • centigram balance
  • protractor
  • stopwatch

PROCEDURE:

Part 1 - Set-up

  1. Gather all materials.
  2. Tidy and clean lab table.

Part 2- Mass

  1. Attach ring clamp to ring stand.
  2. Cut a piece of string noticeably longer than 30cm.
  3. Tie the 15g weight to the string.
  4. Adjust the string such that the weight is 30cm from the ring.
  5. Secure string to the ring clamp with tape and hand.
  6. Make sure the pendulum is horizontal (180 degrees to the horizon)
...read more.

Middle

Length l (cm)

Period T (s)

Average period Tavg (s)

10 ±3

0.88±0.5

0.88±0.5

0.81±0.5

0.84±0.5

0.85±0.5

0.85±0.5

20 ±3

1.13±0.5

1.16±0.5

1.16±0.5

1.12±0.5

1.12±0.5

1.14±0.5

30 ±3

1.35±0.5

1.35±0.5

1.31±0.5

1.35±0.5

1.32±0.5

1.34±0.5

40 ±3

1.50±0.5

1.50±0.5

1.47±0.5

1.50±0.5

1.47±0.5

1.49±0.5

50 ±3

1.72±0.5

1.68±0.5

1.75±0.5

1.65±0.5

1.69±0.5

1.70±0.5

Table 3 – The affect of angles on period

(Note: mass of weight is 100g; length of rope is 30 cm)

Angles a (degrees °)

Period T (s)

Average period Tavg (s)

180±5

1.34±0.5

1.34±0.5

1.37±0.5

1.31±0.5

1.31±0.5

1.33±0.5

195±5

1.25±0.5

1.22±0.5

1.21±0.5

1.23±0.5

1.25±0.5

1.23±0.5

210±5

1.15±0.5

1.21±0.5

1.22±0.5

1.16±0.5

1.16±0.5

1.18±0.5

225±5

1.16±0.5

1.13±0.5

1.13±0.5

1.15±0.5

1.13±0.5

1.14±0.5

240±5

1.12±0.5

1.13±0.5

1.06±0.5

1.09±0.5

1.10±0.5

1.11±0.5

255±5

0.97±0.5

1.00±0.5

1.06±0.5

0.97±0.5

1.00±0.5

1.00±0.5


OBSERVATIONS:

Graph 1, 2, 3, and 4 attached.

...read more.

Conclusion

-4 s/g (m) + 0s) represents the length of the period as a function of the mass; as we can see from the equation, the mass will not have a significant impact on the period of the pendulum motion.

There is no accepted value for this design lab; therefore, it is inappropriate to designate an arbitrary value to compare to my measured value.

SOURCES OF UNCERTAINTY:

  • human error (timing, angles, length of string)
  • timing – ±0.5s (biggest difference out of 5 values)
  • angles - ±5° (protractor was accurate but it was sometimes hard to read)
  • length of string - ±3cm (we measured the specified length of string before taping and tying the rope, creating room for error)
  • air resistance
  • negligible, but clearly relevant in Graph 1 and Graph 2
  • friction in the ring clamp
  • the curved shape of the clamp
  • I chose to record each period separately as opposed to dividing a total number of periods by its swings because I believe that he extra swings would bring in many unknown factors into the system such as momentum. By recording each swing separately, I can make sure that each swing is clean and the weights will not sway or jump. However, multiple timings can create more room for error; therefore I made up for the lost accuracy by increasing my uncertainty in timing.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Physics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Physics essays

  1. Aim: ...

    The forces that were most important in this experiment were the forces of gravity and friction. Gravity pulls all objects down to the surface at an acceleration of 9.8m/s�. And the friction that the cart experienced was increased as the angle increased, making it come down at a greater acceleration.

  2. Analyzing Uniform Circular Motion

    m (Note: The uncertainty on each of the Period is an estimated guess. An electronic stopwatch was used which has a precision of uptil 0.01 s. Assuming that the reaction time was perfect, we get a manufacturer's uncertainty of 0.01 s.

  1. Suspension Bridges. this extended essay is an investigation to study the variation in tension ...

    This is the reason why the curves for all the four lengths are very close to each other unlike the nylon string. Conclusion * Variation in tension with point of application of force My hypothesis of a linear increasing trend for both the strings was proved wrong by Graphs 1 and 2.

  2. Physics IA -motion

    They would use, accuracy (%) = 19/21 �100, which equals 90.48%. R.G. velocity �0.5 I.V. m/s I.V. km/h R.G. accuracy in % Difference between R.G. velocity to I.V. 19 5.434 19.565 � 0.5 97.111 � 2 0.565 20 5.617 20.224 � 0.5 98.888 � 2 0.224 20 5.882 21.176 � 0.5 94.444 � 2 1.176

  1. Circular motion lab

    50.00 11.52 0.58 3. 51.00 11.24 0.56 4. 52.00 12.24 0.61 5. 53.00 13.02 0.65 6. 54.00 14.12 0.71 7. 55.00 14.92 0.75 8. 56.00 16.06 0.80 9. 57.00 16.80 0.84 10. 58.00 17.60 0.88 Now that we have the time period for one oscillation for every length, we can use this to find the acceleration due to gravity.

  2. Investigating the Oscillations of an Obstructed Pendulum

    If a ceiling fan or an A/C is turned on, this could seriously hamper the experiment. The only possible way to eliminate the random error of reaction time would be to make the entire process mechanized and computerized. If an electronic timer was used where a laser would be able

  1. HL Physics Revision Notes

    combined to form pV/T = constant The constant will depend on the number of molecules in the gas PV=nRT Where R = molar gas constant = 8.314 J mol-1 K-1 Difference between ideal gases and real gases: Ideal gases follow the gas laws for all values of p, V and

  2. Investigation into the relationship between acceleration and the angle of free fall downhill

    0.029 The Table below shows the time taken for the cart to go downhill from the 5 experimental trials done for 5 different heights. The uncertainty in the length and height of the plane was taken to be the half of the smallest non-zero unit on the ruler used for measurement.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work