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Physics Wave revision question

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Introduction

1.        Water waves at the surface of a pond pass a floating log of length L. The log is at rest relative to the bank. The diagram shows wave crests at one instant.

The number of crests passing the log per unit time is N. The speed of the water waves relative to the log at rest is

A.        (N – 1).

B.        (N – 1).

C.        (N).

D.        (N).

(1)

2.        Two identical triangular pulses of amplitude X travel toward each other along a string. At the instant shown on the diagram below, point M is midway between the two pulses.

The amplitude of the disturbance in the string as the pulses move through M is

A.        2X.

B.        X.

C.

D.        0.

(1)

3.        A person is walking along one side of a building and a car is driving along another side of the building.

The person can hear the car approach but cannot see it. This is explained by the fact that sound waves

A.        travel more slowly than light waves.

B.        are diffracted more at the corner of the building than light waves.

C.        are refracted more at the corner of the building than light waves.

D.        are longitudinal waves.

(1)

4.        A pulse is sent down a string fixed at one end.

Which one of the following diagrams best represents the reflected pulse?

(1)

5.        The displacement d of a particle in a wave varies with distance x along a wave and with time t as shown below.

Which expression gives the speed of the wave?

A.

B.

C.

D.

(1)

6.        A plane wave approaches and passes through the boundary between two media. The speed of the wave in medium 1 is greater than that in medium 2. Which one of the following diagrams correctly shows the wavefronts?

(1)

7.        The diagram shows the variation with distance x along a wave with its displacement d.

Middle

(1)

31.        Which of the following diagrams best shows the path of a ray of monochromatic light through a glass prism in air?

(1)

32.        Plane parallel wavefronts are incident on an obstacle. Which of the following diagrams best shows the diffraction of the waves around the obstacle?

(1)

33.        Two bodies are brought into thermal contact with each other. No thermal energy transfer takes place between the bodies. It may be deduced therefore, that the bodies must have the same

A.        specific heat capacity.

B.        heat capacity.

C.        temperature.

D.        internal energy.

(1)

34.        The phenomenon of diffraction is associated with

A.        sound waves only.

B.        light waves only.

C.        water waves only.

D.        all waves.

(1)

35.        The diagram below shows plane wavefronts of a wave that is approaching the boundary between two media, X and Y. The speed of the wave is greater in medium X than in medium Y. The wave crosses the boundary.

Which of the following diagrams is correct?

(1)

36.        The graph below shows the variation with time t of the separate displacements d of a medium, at a particular point in the medium due to two waves, P and Q.

The amplitude of the wave resulting from the interference of P and Q is

A.        0.0 mm.

B.        1.0 mm.

C.        1.4 mm.

D.        2.0 mm.

(1)

37.        One end of a long string is vibrated at a constant frequency f. A travelling wave of wavelength λ and speed v is set up on the string.

The frequency of vibration is doubled but the tension in the string is unchanged. Which of the following shows the wavelength and speed of the new travelling wave?

 Wavelength Speed A. v B. 2v C. 2λ v D. 2λ 2v

(1)

38.        A transverse travelling wave has amplitude A0 and wavelength λ.

The distance between a crest and its neighbouring trough, measured in the direction of energy transfer of the wave is equal to

A.        A0.

B.        2A0.

Conclusion

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(Total 14 marks)

57.        Simple harmonic motion and the greenhouse effect

(a)        A body is displaced from equilibrium. State the two conditions necessary for the body to execute simple harmonic motion.

1.        .........................................................................................................................

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2.        .........................................................................................................................

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(2)

(b)        In a simple model of a methane molecule, a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom can be regarded as two masses attached by a spring. A hydrogen atom is much less massive than the carbon atom such that any displacement of the carbon atom may be ignored.

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x from its equilibrium position of a hydrogen atom in a molecule of methane.

The mass of hydrogen atom is 1.7 × 10–27 kg. Use data from the graph above

(i)        to determine its amplitude of oscillation.

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(1)

(ii)        to show that the frequency of its oscillation is 9.1 × 1013 Hz.

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(2)

(iii)        to show that the maximum kinetic energy of the hydrogen atom is 6.2 × 10–18 J.

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(2)

(c)        On the grid below, sketch a graph to show the variation with time t of the speed v of the hydrogen atom for one period of oscillation starting at t = 0. (There is no need to add values to the speed axis.)

(3)

(d)        Assuming that the motion of the hydrogen atom is simple harmonic, its frequency of oscillation f is given by the expression

where k is the force per unit displacement between a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom and mp is the mass of a proton.

(i)        Show that the value of k is approximately 560 N m–1.

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(1)

(ii)        Estimate, using your answer to (d)(i), the maximum acceleration of the hydrogen atom.

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(2)

(e)        Methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

(i)        Describe what is meant by a greenhouse gas.

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(2)

(ii)        Electromagnetic radiation of frequency 9.1 × 1013 Hz is in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Suggest, based on the information given in (b)(ii), why methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

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(2)

(Total 17 marks)

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