• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Affect of Mass on the Period

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Colin Wick                2/17/09

Period 4                IB Physics

The Affect of Mass on the Period

How does the mass affect the period of a pendulum?  We believe that if the mass of a pendulum were increased, then the period of the pendulum would decrease, because as the mass is increased so is the downward force of gravity acting on the pendulum, causing the acceleration of the pendulum to increase.  This experiment will be conducted by taping a “light”, measured string to a table so that it hangs 90 degrees to the horizontal.  Measured masses will then be attached to the string for each data point, and the resulting period recorded for five trials.  The gathered data will be graphed in order to visually represent the affect that mass has on the period of a pendulum.  The only variable that will be manipulated in this experiment will be the mass on the end of the pendulum, while the angle of release and the length of the string will remain same.  The angle of release and string length will be controlled, because by changing either of them, the distance the pendulum must travel is also changed.  Therefore, both controlled variables could conceivably affect the period of the pendulum.  If our hypothesis is correct, then the period of the pendulum will have an inverse response to the mass, meaning that as the mass increases, the period of the pendulum should decrease.

        The materials utilized in our experiment are listed in bullets below and set up according to the following diagram:image00.png

  • Pre-measured 20 gram mass
  • Pre-measured 50 gram mass
  • Pre-measured 100 gram mass
  • Pre-measured 200 gram mass
  • Pre-measured 250 gram mass
  • “Light” string (34cm)
  • Meter stick to measure string
  • Protractor
  • Stopwatch
  • Table
  • Tape
...read more.

Middle

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Uncertainty (±)

20.0

0.2

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.1

0.1

50.0

0.2

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.1

0.1

100.2

0.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

0.1

200.2

0.2

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.1

1.1

0.1

250.3

0.2

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

0.1

Average Period (s)

Average Period Uncertainty (±s)

1.06

0.16

1.08

0.18

1.10

0.10

1.08

0.18

1.10

0.10

image01.png

        This graph illustrates that there is no relationship between the mass and period of a pendulum because the slope of the graph is so close to zero.  Therefore, the period constantly stays exceptionally close 1.1s despite the change in mass.  The uncertainty in mass is not represented in the graph because it is so miniscule that it cannot be seen without misrepresenting data.

        The calculations that were done in this lab are represented below through explanations and examples (all examples use data from data point three), as well as the various uncertainties used.

Uncertainty of Mass:

...read more.

Conclusion

        There are a number of improvements that could be made to the lab that would decrease, and in some cases eliminate both the systematic and random error that was encountered.  The first improvement would almost entirely eliminate the systematic error of air friction by conducting the trials inside a vacuum.  By eliminating air friction, we would make the surface area of the masses obsolete.  The second enhancement to the lab that would make the gathered data more reliable, would be to instead of tape the pendulum to the table, to tie it to a bar bridging two tables.  Therefore, the bar would be able to hold the added mass successfully, unlike the tape, allowing us to gather data without having to occasionally reset the lab, lessening the chance that the string length would change.  Finally, we could set up an infrared timing system where a beam would be aimed at the top of the pendulums swing on one side and when allowed to connect would start time (the mass would be in the way at the start), and when broken again (when the mass has completed one period) would stop time.  This would make the collection of time much more accurate, eliminating the human error of pressing the start and stop button on the timer at exact moments.

Page  of

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Physics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Physics essays

  1. How does the mass of the paper helicopter affect the drop time of the ...

    pass before the thought from the brain reaches the hand to start and stop the stopwatch). This serves as a limitation because although the stop watch was controlled by the same person each time, a different time lapse will pass each time thus causing the inability to accurately time the helicopter drop each time.

  2. This lab will test the effects of the surface area factor on acceleration due ...

    similar to a vacuum, the paper, regardless of mass should hit the ground from a height of 520cm (5.2m) in approximately 1.03s. Since the investigations of the factors that effects the acceleration of an object due to gravity is a requirement for this lab, percent errors of results are needed to put into consideration.

  1. Simple pendulum lab. In this experiment, the length of the string will be ...

    Set the bob till 45 degrees mark (as precisely as possible) and then leave it. 3. As soon as it is left, start the stopwatch and record the time for ten oscillations 4. Repeat the steps 2 and three two more times without changing the length in order to get three trials 5.

  2. Investigate the factors affecting the period of a double string pendulum

    This will make the results roughly more accurate. (5) * Finally, as for the height and positioning of the two clamp stands, I will use a height of 50cm and ensure that the two clamp stands are parallel and touching one another on their bases.

  1. Suspension Bridges. this extended essay is an investigation to study the variation in tension ...

    and also the properties of the joined rubber band varied due to the knots. Thus, I settled to use an elastic band similar to the kind used in garments. Hypothesis I predicted the end result of my experiment that as the distance from the rigid support increases, the tension force

  2. Bifilar Suspension - the technique will be applied to find the mass moment ...

    and the time period (T) * The line is not passing through origin (0,0) indicating the presence of systematic error in the investigation. * The graph is having a meaningful systematic error as line touches at y-intercept of -0.4065. * As the RMSE value is 0.2145 which is close to

  1. HL Physics Revision Notes

    If a surface is black and dull such as charcoal it will have an emissivity closer to 1. Good emitters or heat are also good absorbers of heat which is why in winter people wear dark clothes to absorb the radiation from the sun.

  2. Investigation into the relationship between acceleration and the angle of free fall downhill

    of the average time taken by the cart to go downhill with a height of 0.084 m: The average time vs height was expressed in the following graph: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Trigonometric_Triangle.svg/382px-Trigonometric_Triangle.svg.png Processed Data After obtaining results for the time taken for the cart to go down the slope, further calculations could be

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work