International Baccalaureate: Psychology essays
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230 International Baccalaureate Psychology essays
IB Psychology Experiment - Our aim is to determine the effect of gender on awareness on the moon walking bear video.
Introduction People tend to be focused of an important object they see in front of them. However, they ignore the other object that is displaying at the same time. This is known as the intentional blindness. When people are focused on one task, it is really hard for them to notice things around them, even when something unusual happened. For example, the purpose of the moon walking bear video on Youtube we showed to the participants is to let them be focused on counting how many passes can the white team make. Through the passes, the moon walking bear would pass by slowly.
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Outline how one study demonstrates principles of the cognitive level of analysis. Bartlett investigated the role of culture in schema processing in his classic study The War of the Ghosts in 1932.
is that cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. And "one of the first to say this was the British psychologist Fredric Bartlett, who coined the term schema, which is defined as a mental representation of knowledge." Bartlett investigated the role of culture in schema processing in his classic study "The War of the Ghosts" in 1932. The aim of his experiment was to see if the culture of the participants had any influence on schema processing and the effect of schema on participants recall of a story.
- Length: 425 words
The two most common errors of attribution are the fundamental attribution error and the self-serving bias. The principle of the fundamental attribution error is that we tend to explain people's behaviour by assigning its cause to dispositional factors and overlooking the situational factors. The self-serving bias is the attribution error where we explain our own behaviour by attributing our success to dispositional factors and our failures to the situational factors. Such biased attributions are viewed as serving the interests of preserving or increasing self-esteem.
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I am going to talk about cognitive processes of memory and how biological factors may affect the onset of Alzheimers disease.
A very small part of information enters into STM by selective attention. Information in STM is quickly lost if not given attention. The information is encoded into LTM via rehearsal. Case studies show that LTM must consist of several stores. At the first level, LTM is divided into two systems: the first is explicit memory. This type of memory focuses on "knowing what". Explicit memory has been divided onto two subsystems: semantic memories (memory of facts) and episodic memories (memory of events). The second unit of LTM is implicit memory, which contains memories that we are not consciously aware of.
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Shift workers often have digestive problems and insomnia. They become tired, irritable, and can suffer from depression. It is not just lack of sleep that causes these problems, but a general disruption in their circadian rhythms (e.g. body temperature). Research has found that body temperature is slow to change, and seems to adjust after three weeks. Heart rate and blood pressure change more quickly. The internal disagreement between circadian rhythms can cause physiological problems. In addition to this, it is harder for night shift workers to get the same amount and quality of sleep as day workers.
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An example of a hormone is Oxytocin, otherwise known as "the love drug." Oxytocin which is produced by the hypothalamus, is according to Crane & Hannibal (2009) responsible got inducing lactation and labour contractions. It is released when people hug each other and more in general, specific touching which is pleasurable to the both parties. Yet, does the level of oxytocin in the body affect human behaviour at all? A recent study conducted by Dr. Feldman of Bar-Llan University in 2008 suggested that the amount of oxytocin in the body does affect human behaviour.
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Evidence from studies conducted on aggression suggest that the environment is a deciding factor in anti-social behaviour. Twins have always been a fascinating example of how the environment affects the character and behaviour of the respective children in terms of their differing intelligence. We see in many instances that researchers use genetically identical twins (who were separated shortly after birth) as a window to glimpse their development with a different "nurture" from their twin counterpart. The reason that such projects are being done is because that the twins' genetic makeup is identical, guaranteeing less margins of error.
- Length: 1156 words
An experiment investigating the effect of background music on students ability to recall a list of words
This demonstrates that exposure to music during both memorisation and recall of information will increase an individual's recall. Introduction Memory is an important process studied in the cognitive level of analysis of psychology and there are certain factors which influence memory recall. This includes environmental factors such as background music. St. Clair (2000), proposed that due to the encoding specificity principle of memory, the most effective retrieval cues that help with recall are the sensory cues which were present at the time of memorisation (Thompson & Tulving, 1970).
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Every three minutes observational data was recorded. Time-series analyses were used on the data to determine the effect of the intervention on OTP. The results showed that a significant increase (p = 0.0001) in OTP was determined for male subjects. Although there was a similar increase in OTP for females, due to the ceiling effect the statistical results were less than males. This effect occurs when variance in an independent variable is not measured or estimated above a certain level which is often the results of limitations on data-gathering instruments.
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Social influence involves the exercise of social power by a person or group to change the attitudes or behaviour of others in a particular direction (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004, cited in Franzoi, 2009). It is the extent to which an individual's opinions, attitudes and judgements are influenced by being exposed to the views of others. (Van Avermaet, 2001, cited in Lynda's lecture notes, 2012). The impact of social influence on the decisions made varies by product category and industry. The organization that I am working for, Maxis, provides a discounted price to their staff for all Apple mobile devices.
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Analysis showed the 83% of the respondents fulfilled the criteria for Bulimia. Furthermore Keel et al. in 2006, found that 40% of college women showed symptoms of Bulimia and a study of visitors to a family planning hospital revealed that 1.9% of the patients had Bulimia. However one must distinguish between age groups, social standing and gender when looking at the prevalence of Bulimia because there is a significant difference. Freud supposed that the female:male ratio of Bulimia patients lies at around 10:1 and further studies have shown that around 99% of the cases were female.
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How to handle emotions better. Understanding emotions helps to see the world form a different perspective and of course it helps to reach a better life quality.
"Emotions are the glue that connects you to other people and gives meaning to life. They are the foundation of your ability to understand yourself and relate to others". (Developing Emotional Awareness, 2011). There is a saying that emotions are like notes for music. If there are no notes, there is no music. The same happens with emotions. If person does not have emotions, it is just a body without ability to respond to the environment. Different emotions lead to various responses, so it is essential to be aware and be in control of your emotions.
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According to the National Research Council, discrimination has a two-part definition: a) different treatment based on an individuals race and b) different treatment based on inadequately justified factors other than race
The psychological explanations about discrimination include the following theories: a) Genetic predispositions. The individuals who are prejudiced might have a particular personality type known as "the authoritarian personality "(Adorno,1950).The authoritarians personalities have a set of inflexible and rigid beliefs ,which make them to immediately reject or act against to individuals with different values/ethics/ cultures and ethnicity (Adorno,1950). Moreover, Individuals with authoritarian personalities tend to adapt themselves to the group whose ethnic dimension and nation belong (Adorno, 1950).
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PET scans have been used in research such as that by Raine et al. (1997) who conducted research with the aim of discovering whether murderers who had pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) showed evidence of brain abnormalities. The scans showed that the NGRI group had reduced activity in the amygdala and the hippocampus in comparison to the control group. The PET scans also highlighted many smaller differences in the brains of the NGRI group, leading Raine (1997)
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The two hormones that are discussed here are: Oxytocin and Melatonin, both of which may affect the human behavior. Oxytocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus (a region of the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland). It is released either directly into the blood via the pituitary gland, or to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Oxytocin is often called the 'love hormone'. It is known to increase feelings of generosity, relaxation, and facilitates relationship formation and positive communication.
- Length: 617 words
This essay will examine the various arguments that are brought up pro and against the nature and nurture debate.
I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years. [Behaviourism (1930), p. 82] Studies made on feral children who were kept in and raised isolated from humans support nurture; we become what we are from the things we learn. Amala and Kamala, the famous wolf like children, were raised by a she-wolf and were found by the reverend J. A.
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An Investigation of the Effect the Presence of Different Genres of Music Have on Reaction Rate to Visual Stimulus
Purpose: to compare the effect of heavy metal and classical music on reaction rate Independent Variable: Presence of music such as heavy metal and classical (songs provided by YouTube) Dependent Variable: Reaction rate (test measuring time it takes to click mouse once colour of object has changed from red to green via an online test) Constant Variables: * Same songs played * Both songs that subject would not know * Same test to measure reaction rate * Area in which experiment is being conducted must be very quiet and with no possible distractions such as people moving or other sounds
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Each study could then be compiled according to the surgery, if any, that has been done on them, thereby creating a picture of which areas of the brain most cause amnesia or the severity of it in patients The cold virus is quite common in individuals, therefore scientists can monitor people who obtain the cold virus, and compare them to Clive Wearing to see how the cold virus reacts and how the body responds to it, and thus see the herpes simplex encephalitis' role in memory Very in depth, rich data can be achieved through a variety of research methods
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Psychology Experiment. The study that is being replicated is the first experiment of J.R. Stroops The Stroop Effect, which involved the effect of interfering color stimuli upon reading names of colors serially.
This way of experimenting shows the true difference between the times it takes to respond when given one stimulus versus when given two stimuli; which naturally the latter one should take longer. The independent variable was the color of the words that were in a different color ink than the actual name of the color and the dependent variable was the speed in which a person could respond, verbally, measured in seconds. Ethical principles were maintained through issuing a consent form; to tell the participants what was expected to find in the experiment, there was a debriefing statement.
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Statistical Analysis for IB Psychology. The chi-square test is a method of statistical analysis used for comparison of observed/ actual data to expected data.
He observes that 30 people came in on Monday, 14 on Tuesday, 34 on Wednesday, 45 on Thursday, 57 on Friday, and 20 on Saturday. We will assume the owners distribution is correct. Day M T W T F S Expected % 10 10 15 20 30 15 Observed 30 14 34 45 57 20 Expected # 20 20 30 40 60 30 Total of 200 Customers throughout the week. Chi-Square Statistic = ?2 To find this, you would take the (Observed Value - Expected Number)
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Identified in 1965, that human brain structure was thought to be determined by genetics and thus fixed and unchangeable. But an experiment carried out by Hubel and Wiesel 1965, demonstrated that the brain could change in structure as a response to an environmental impact. The results of experimental studies were based on laboratory experiments with rats but it is now generally accepted that environmental enrichment can adjust the brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex, known as the area of higher cognitive functioning. It appears that the human brain is constantly changing as a result of experience throughout lifetime, as the brain changes with age to reflect new experiences and actions.
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Abu Ghraib Psychology Essay. What do you think you would do in a situation like Abu Ghraib? Do you think the military personnel who were involved in the Abu Ghraib incident should have been jailed or reduced in rank?
In 2002, the president dismissed the Geneva Conventions which was thought to be the most unpresidented act in the U.S. history. "The only way to conduct a war in a civilized manner is to ensure that everybody understand what the rules are to the maximum extent possible and when you start messing around with those rules when you say they don't apply, now you are in unlimited warfare", Rear Admiral John Huston US Navy 1997-2000. "This war was a war that would foremost depend on intelligence that is on information derived from prisoners at war therefore rules regarding interrogation, what
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In modern cases, eclectic approaches are commonly used to incorporate positive effects of each different therapy. Patients with bulimia, which is an eating disorder, feel inadequacy, vomit, imagine of negative self-image and has swollen salivary glands. Like other psychological disorders, Bulimia also can be explained biologically, cognitively and socioculturally. Like what was mentioned, treatment of the disorders is related to what is thought to be the etiology. Therefore, there are many different ways to treat this eating disorder. When psychologists think that the disorder is caused by biological factors, they use biomedical approach to treat their clients.
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Understanding Childrens Behaviour. The purpose of this writing is to explore the theoretical perspectives of Operant Conditioning Theory developed by B.F. Skinner, Classical Conditiong Theory of I.Pavlov and Social Learning Theory developed by A.
Operant Conditioning is very similar to classical conditioning. But in include reinforces. After a response occurs, due to a certain stimulus, reinforces (positive or negative) are inserted that will increase or diminish the probability that the behaviour may occur again. His famous work is the Skinner box where he would condition, pigeons, mice, and even his own daughter to learn anything he wanted them to. Compare and Contrast - B.F. Skinner's theory of Operant Conditioning has at its foundation a desire to demonstrate a "cause and effect" relationship between behaviour and reinforcement and focuses on predicting and controlling behaviour in observable ways (Skinner, 1953, p.
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Cognitive Approach to Moral Development Piaget's Stage Theory of Moral Development ==> Children pass through stages in their reasoning about what is right and wrong ==> The stages are universal - they apply to everyone ==> The stages are invariable - everyone goes through them in the same sequence. Piaget - Marbles Experiment Aim To find out how moral development occurred in children and whether they think that the idea of what is wrong and right is decided by others.
- Length: 2243 words