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International Baccalaureate: Psychology

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  1. Examine the Concepts of Normality & Abnormality

    On the other hand, the six characteristics of normality identified by Jahoda (1958) appear at first hand to be entirely based on external judgements of the patient's evaluation of his personal abilities, such as "efficient self-perception", "realistic self esteem" or "self-direction"; or what is exhibited of his abilities, such as "productivity" or "sustaining relationships". Jahoda assumed that there exists an ideal state of mental health, and the more a person lacks in terms of these criteria the more prone he is to developing mental disorder.

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  2. IA stroop effect

    Conversely, the human mind has difficulty in naming colours when words describe another colour. Stroop (1935) described this interference after studying the effects on attention of conflicting word and colour stimuli.3 Stroop studied naming colours serially, using solid coloured squares; then introduced words, using incongruent word-colour pairs to act as interference, Engel-Andreasen (2008). This resulted in the research subjects taking longer to name the colours in which the words were printed. The experiment was a form of operationalisation, as the interference is physically measurable by recording times, Hill (1998). Jaensch (1929) also studied volunteers' responses to words printed in incongruent colours.3 Cattell (1885)

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  3. Stroop Effect

    Furthermore, calculated vale is 4.626 and critical value is 1.729. Therefore, calculated value is higher and we can say that the experimental hypothesis is accepted at a significance level p<0.05. Introduction Information processing is the change in information from which the way the observer takes in. Acquiring, retaining and using the information actively are the process of the information processing. There are 3 stages to it. Firstly, we use our senses to get the information in sensory model and if the attention is given to the information, it goes to the short-term memory. Furthermore, if information in short-term memory (STM)

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  4. The Basic Mechanisms of Homeostasis Overview of homeostasis The term homeostasis was first coined by Walter Cannon in 1929 to literally mean steady state. It describes the dynamic equilibrium by which internal constancy is maintained with

    3.1 The audience and its influence on the media The mass media are free of government control, and the audience is in turn free to choose the version of reality that they absorb. Audiences provide feedback (and hence affect media content) by conforming, accommodating or rejecting a particular medium's view of reality. In this way, different parts of the media cater for different parts of society. Because the media is seen as reflecting society, it does not have a significant role in changing it.

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  5. This experiment investigated the effect of the presence of others on the number of word associations produced by a single individual. It was a replication of an experiment carried out by Allport (1920).

    Table of Contents Abstract p.1 Introduction p.3 Method p.4 Design p.4 Participants p.5 Materials p.5 Procedure p.6 Results p.7 Discussion p.8 References p.10 Appendices p.11 Introduction The term 'social facilitation' refers to the tendency for individuals to be aroused into putting on a better performance on less complex tasks when under the eye of other individuals, rather than while they are working on their own, or when competing against somebody. More complex tasks, though, are quite often performed in a rather non-productive manner when it comes to such situations.

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  6. EE PSYCHOLOGY

    Relation between training method and animal intelligence 3.0 Conclusion Bibliography 1.0 Introduction Psychology has evolved for many centuries certainly due to it's experimental aspects. Particularly the use of behavioristic methodology has been a long lasting resource of empirical evidence in the development of psychology. Especially in testing animals and their learning abilities. The behavioristic approach has given rise to understanding integral and most fundamental reasons for human behavior. Personal interest in animals and the training of them has driven me to the choosing of this topic.

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  7. IB Revision Psych

    works on dogs by Pavlov. - Behaviourists thought humans and animals were all on same level - things we find out about animal behaviour will inform us about humans - rejected by Humanists. - Darwin was a huge influence - evolutionary theory suggests we have a great deal in common with animals. Contributions of the Learning Perspective (LP) A. Rejection of Introspection and the Introduction of Scientific Principles - Watson insisted on methods that removed any chance of subjective i.e.

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  8. SL Psychology IA - Iconic Memory

    The first widely accepted model of memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) separated memory into three distinct stores; the sensory, short-term and long-term stores. The sensory memory retains impressions of stimulus for short periods of time after the stimulus has been removed. This memory store is separated again into iconic and echoic memory stores, of which the echoic memory is responsible for the storage of auditory stimuli. Iconic memory is a rapidly decaying short term visual memory store that stores impressions of stimuli for approximately 500s after the offset of a display.

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  9. Psychology Internal Assessment

    In his study, conducted in 1920, commanding officers in the American army were asked to rate their soldiers based on the categories of intelligence, physique, leadership and character. What Thorndike found was a high cross-correlation between all positive and all negative traits. After carrying out the study, Thorndike expanded his definition of the halo effect to be 'an extension of an overall impression of a person (or one particular outstanding trait) to influence the total judgement of that person.' This is the area of focus of our experiment.

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  10. Anger and Aggression in Males and Females

    Another reason why people should be familiar with the issues of anger and aggression deeper is that each and every person sometimes gets into the situation they do not know what is better: to get angry or not, and to aggress or not. Biology predisposed people to be able to aggress and get angry. Society provides guidelines of how to use these predispositions. What do these norms say? What does society expect from people to do in anger- and aggression-provoking situations?

    • Word count: 4566
  11. To What Extent Can Music Improve a Child's Intelligence?

    Table of Contents Abstract Introduction The Effect of Music Instruction on Intelligence Music and Linguistic Intelligence Music and Mathematical Intelligence Music and IQ IQ Tests and Bidirectionality Conclusion References and Citations Introduction Music is a fundamental part of our lives and it exposes itself to us every day, whether it is by a catchy jingle from an ad on TV or this year?s hit new songs on the radio. Music is able to affect everyone in a multitude of ways, such as eliciting strong emotional responses or improving creativity.

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  12. An experiment to investigate whether word connotation truly does have an effect on memory

    For this reason, this experiment failed in showing that connotations have any significant effect on the schema and reconstructive memory theory. Table of Contents Abstract pg.1 Introduction pg.2 Method pg.5 Design pg.5 Participants pg.5 Materials pg.6 Procedure pg.6 Results pg.7 Discussion pg.8 References pg.10 Appendices pg.11 Appendix I pg.11 Appendix II pg.12 Appendix III pg.12 Appendix IV pg.13 Appendix V pg.13 Appendix VI pg.13 Appendix VII pg.14 Appendix VIII pg.14 Appendix IX pg.15 Appendix X pg.16 Appendix XI pg.17 Introduction Memory (as a mental process)

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  13. Psychology IB Abnormality Notes

    Paragraph 1 1. Biological factors influencing abnormal behavior 2. Biological factors influencing bulimia? develop the explanation first BEFORE describing a study. 3. Twin, family research supports notion that bulimia could be inherited. Still in early stages. Twins share 100% of the genes, families also share a percentage of their genes, so it makes sense to suppose that if there is a higher concordance rate between twins and family members, then genetics could well be a determining factor. 1. Genetics (brand of biology studying the heredity and variation of organisms)

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  14. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis

    Ishmael soon realizes that he is capable of truly horrific things. Wielding an AK-47 and hopped up on a cocktail of drugs, killing becomes as natural for Ishmael as playing soccer. The final period begins when he is placed in a rehabilitation center and finally accepts that he is still very much a child. At first, he is hesitant to trust, feel happiness, or accept the fact that he is not responsible for the many killings that he had done.

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  15. To what extent is positive education in classroom settings successful in enhancing students happiness?

    Positive education could not only increase the well-being of the human population, but also save governments millions of dollars, as much research have found that this type of education reduces the likely hood of depression significantly. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) depression is the most costly disease in the world. Most research regarding positive education have been carried out by Seligman and his research team led by Reivich and Gillham, which let to the development of two different school programs: the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), and the Strath Haven Positive Psychology Curriculum, which The Geelong Grammar School Project follows.

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  16. Psychology biological level of analysis revision

    The researchers took blood samples before the monks ascended the mountain. The monks were exposed to the harsh autumn weather, did not speak or consume water or food. After approximately 48 hours, the monks began to hallucinate claiming that they saw ancient ancestors or they felt their presence. Immediately, blood tests were taken and stated that serotonin levels increased. They concluded that sensory deprivation triggered the release of serotonin. Increased serotonin activates the hypothalamus and frontal cortex which results in hallucination. Thus behaviours have physiological origins so humans should be studied as biological systems.

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  17. Where does Schizophrenia Lie in the Spectrum of Nature vs Nurture?

    and phren, phren- (?mind?)) is a mental disorder that was first recognized by a doctor named Emile Kraepelin in 1887. It was believed that it accompanied mankind long before it was first identified. It is characterized by a variety of symptoms many of which include the loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, and odd behavior. Patients who have schizophrenia are often misinterpreted as people who have a multiple personality, however it is actually a deterioration of personality. A Swiss Doctor named Eugen Bleuler closely observed schizophrenia in 1908 (The History of Schizophrenia).

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  18. Is eyewitness testimony reliable?

    Page 7 Misleading Questions????????????????????????????????????? Page 7 Anxiety and Stress??????????????????????????????????????.. Page 9 Weapon Focus????????????????????????????????????????? Page 11 Reconstructive Memory???????????????????????????????????. Page 11 Confident Testimony?????????????????????????????????????. Page 14 Age?????????????????????????????????????????????.?? Page 15 Gender?????????????????????????????????????????????. Page 16 Conclusion?????????????????????????????????????????? Page 17 References ????????????????????????????????????????.... Page 19 ________________ INTRODUCTION The reliability of eyewitness testimony has often been questioned in cases of crime and violence but yet the judicial system seems to ignore its flaws. Numerous psychologists have carried out experiments and studies regarding this issue. Eyewitness testimony has a large psychological background that judges, lawyers and the jury seem to ignore. Our ability to remember certain situations and events may be distorted according to the time and place that the event occurred or the time and place that the eyewitness testimony is given.

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"The brain is wider than the sky."

-Emily Dickinson

If you want to explore the thoughts and motivations of all humans on earth, from individuals like your mother, to groups like football teams, then youmight like to choose psychology as your group 3 subject for the International Baccalaureate diploma. Psychology offers students the chance to study human thought and behaviour as interpreted through the lenses of biological, cognitive, and sociocultural analysis.

Strong writing skills will be necessary here, as much of the assessment rests upon written work. If your writing needs a bit of encouragement, visit Marked by Teachers' collection of student-submitted IB psychology papers. Make a habit of studying our teacher-marked examples and you'll have all the tools you need to write excellent essays and reports.

Psychology is a good option if you'd like to go to university to study psychology or a related subject like sociology. It's also a great group 3 choice if you're going down the science route, as it can serve to complement group 4 courses like biology.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent is psychodynamic effective in its application to everyday life?

    "In conclusion, psychoanalytically-informed play therapy can be a powerful form of treatment. But it can sometimes be lengthy, costly, hard, and painful for both children and their parents. For the child therapist, learning and mastering psychoanalytic play therapy can be demanding, both intellectually and emotionally. It requires conviction and personal involvement and yet it's very subjective and cannot be generalised."

  • Psychology essay-- Discuss the effectiveness of the biological perspective in explaining one psychological or social question.

    "In conclusion, it is very effective to explain aggression through the biological perspective since there are many aspects that control aggression such as hormones and even parts of the brain. It is effective because through the assumptions of the biological perspective, such as all behaviour is caused and that all that is psychological is physiological-since the mind appears to reside the brain, all thoughts, behaviour and emotions ultimately have a physical cause- it can be concluded that aggression is caused by the brain and certain chemicals and hormones."

  • Psychology discuss one contribution of the learning perspective to the scientific study of behaviour

    "In conclusion, classical conditioning as explained by Pavlov's laboratory experiment with dogs helps explain how the learning perspective used scientific experiments for the first time in psychology in the way that they tried to prove theories in a controlled environment. This contributed to the scientific study of behavior as it led to other perspectives adopting similar methods and so making their theories more valid."

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