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International Baccalaureate: Psychology

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  1. Cognitive Psychology in Education

    Knowledge is not merely transmitted verbally but must be constructed and reconstructed by the learner. According to Piaget, the learner must be active and not a vessel to be filled with facts. Piaget's approach to learning is a readiness approach. Readiness approaches in developmental psychology emphasize that children cannot learn something until maturation gives them certain prerequisites (Brainerd, 1978). The ability to learn any cognitive content is always related to their stage of intellectual development. Children who are at a certain stage cannot be taught the concepts of a higher stage.

    • Word count: 1291
  2. IB Revision Psych

    works on dogs by Pavlov. - Behaviourists thought humans and animals were all on same level - things we find out about animal behaviour will inform us about humans - rejected by Humanists. - Darwin was a huge influence - evolutionary theory suggests we have a great deal in common with animals. Contributions of the Learning Perspective (LP) A. Rejection of Introspection and the Introduction of Scientific Principles - Watson insisted on methods that removed any chance of subjective i.e.

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    can you DISCUSS theories from 2 - 3 perspectives in an extended response? Biological Sperry and Gazzaniga, Hobson and McCauley, Donald Buss, Simon LeVay, Paul Broca, Flourins and Lashley, Greenough, Fred Gage, Joe Martinez, Hans Seyle Learning Theory B F Skinner, Albert Bandura, Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, Tolman, Harry Harlow, Kohler, Garcia, Mary Cover Jones. Cognitive Eleanore Maccoby, Jean Piaget, Martin Seligman, Leon Festinger, Ren�e Baillargeon, C S Dweck,, Deregowski, Elisabeth Loftus, Howard Gardner, Hermann Ebbinghaus, F. C.

    • Word count: 1347
  4. Attachment Theory

    He also said that early childhood experiences of attachment greatly influence the development and behavior later in life. Bowlby's (1951) main part of the theory was that the mother-child attachment has an evolutionary basis, an innate process that helped the child's survival by increasing mother-child proximity or closeness, especially when the child is fearful, or stressful, such as in the case of child meeting stranger. Bowlby explained the theory of attachment in four characteristics. The first is proximity maintenance, which is the desire to be near the people we are attached to; the caregiver. The next characteristic is returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety (safe haven)

    • Word count: 1118
  5. To Shake Off the Mortal Coils

    What fools. How many people can hold a gun to their head and pull the trigger? How many can cut a knife into their arms to pierce arteries and veins? How many can make the little step off a skyscraper? How many can swallow the cyanide pill? Small movements, a jerk of an index finger, a cut, a step, a swallow. How many think they can do that but have to face their weakness on the doorsteps of a mysterious, scaring new existence? How many have the mental strength to deal with such a decision? How many can question their lives?

    • Word count: 1118
  6. Essay: Piaget's theory of studying.

    By touching, looking, and sucking on objects, they were able to learn about them. He called this the sensorimotor stage of intellectual development, lasting from birth to two years old, because intelligence at that time is measured largely by the infant's deliberate motor actions, and the immediate sensory feedback they receive from those actions. Piaget characterized the years from two to seven, as belonging to the period of preoperational thought. Children can now think about absent objects, and often make up new symbols or objects to represent others, such as a stick of wood being transformed into a ray gun.

    • Word count: 592
  7. Outline the historical or cultural factors that led to the development of the biological perspective

    The Greeks were a powerful nation, excelling in every subject from theatre to philosophy. The age of the philosophers began at about 600 BC with Thales. Philosophy was the beginning of all scientific thought and it later branched of into psychology, however, some of the basic premises of the biological perspective are visible in some Greek philosophers' ideas. Alcmaeon said in the 5th century BC that the brain was the 'seat of the soul', implying that the brain did in fact play a part in cognitive functioning, and a century later Plato agreed with this.

    • Word count: 631
  8. SL Psychology IA - Iconic Memory

    The first widely accepted model of memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) separated memory into three distinct stores; the sensory, short-term and long-term stores. The sensory memory retains impressions of stimulus for short periods of time after the stimulus has been removed. This memory store is separated again into iconic and echoic memory stores, of which the echoic memory is responsible for the storage of auditory stimuli. Iconic memory is a rapidly decaying short term visual memory store that stores impressions of stimuli for approximately 500s after the offset of a display.

    • Word count: 3070
  9. psych ia SL

    These results supported and replicated the results of the Dukes and Bastian experiment and demonstrated that a list of concrete words was better recalled than a list of abstract words. Introduction The Dukes and Bastian study (1966) investigated the differences in the level of recall of lists of concrete and abstract words. Paivio's theory on dual coding (1969) predicted that concrete nouns would have a higher recall than abstract nouns; the reason for this was that concrete words had a verbal basis and a literal basis, for e.g.

    • Word count: 2285
  10. IB Psychology Internal Assessment - Learning Perspective

    Participants of the study were 36 boys and 36 girls with a mean age of 52 months. The main procedure of the experiment was that the children were individually shown into a room containing toys and played with them in a corner for 10 minutes. While the main procedure was in process, a few other procedures were continuing. The non-aggressive adult model played in a quiet and subdued manner for 10 minutes, or the aggressive model distinctively aggressed against an inflated Bobo doll by punching or kicking it with verbally aggressive statements.

    • Word count: 2105
  11. Internal Assessment on Stroop Effect

    It can be augmented or decreased depending on one's surroundings; for example, trying to read a book while babysitting four children would be more difficult than doing homework in a closed quiet room. This is because there are other stimuli that need to be blocked out in order to focus on the book. Environment and learning also play crucial roles in our cognition of something. What we have been preconditioned to accept or understand will always dominate new or unfamiliar ideas (Engel-Andreasen, Michael).

    • Word count: 2455
  12. Describe and evaluate the historical and cultural conditions that gave rise to the Learning Perspective.

    Famous for his quote, "I think, therefore I am" (We Didn't Start the Fire, 2008), Descartes' ideas were opposing those of the majority of other renowned psychologists. Next in the chronological timeline, John Locke (1632-1704) reinforced the subject of empiricism. This theory suggests that very few qualities, such as reflexes like breathing or sucking (as a baby) are inbuilt. All our knowledge is based on education from experiences. Further emphasizing this point, he claimed that a baby is born with tabula rasa, meaning blank slate, which over time is transformed into knowledge and understanding (Carter 2008).

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  13. Content Analysis

    Physical acts of aggression can be hitting, throwing, pushing, stabbing, shooting ect. Verbal aggression on the other hand can be observed through threats, name calling, cursing or even simply yelling. Agression is prevalent in TV shows, and can be learned by anyone who is watching them through means of imitation. Studies show that violence on television increases the violence and aggressive behavior in a person's life. These people include those who already have violent lives, or go through violent behavior, and is increased more when they watch such shows.

    • Word count: 1742
  14. An experiment to investigate the effect of categorical organisation on the recall of words on a page

    Mandler (1967), cited in Organisation of memory booklet, performed a study that asked participants to organise a list of words into categories (between two and seven categories) and then recall the words. According to Mandler there was higher recall when more categories were used and that the subjects who used seven categories recalled, on average, twenty words more than the ones who used only two. Mandler used subject-based organisation due to the fact that the words had no structure when given to the subjects.

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  15. The effect and role of organization on memory and recall

    et al.'s research revealed, a better recall observed in the group that had the words in an organized format than the group with the random format. Thus, it supports the hypothesis and establishes the fact that organization does positively affect recall. INTRODUCTION Memory shares a very close, highly correlative relationship with learning. It serves as the most important, crucial part in the process of learning for humans and other animals. Since learning signifies some kind of permanent change in our behavior or a personal response benefitting/ derived from a past experience, it requires us to remember things; and memory is the process by which we are able to store, retain and recall information.

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  16. Effects of Drugs and Alcohol on the Brain

    These groups include pharmaceuticals such as amphetamines and the street drugs commonly called "uppers" or "speed," and cocaine (Stimulants). Among the many drugs, the more commonly used stimulants are cocaine and amphetamines. Amphetamines increase the heart and respiration rates, increase blood pressure, dilate the pupils of the eyes, and decrease appetite. Amphetamines are psychologically addictive and users become dependent on the drug to avoid the "down" feeling. Psychological dependence on drugs can lead to use of stronger stimulants such as cocaine. Stimulants exert their effects by modifying normal communication that occurs among brain neurons and circuits. Cocaine and amphetamines have both shown to specifically disrupt the dopamine neurotransmitter system.

    • Word count: 1259
  17. Essay outline for Topic 2 & 3

    ?Argument 1: Co-operation over superordinate goals reduces prejudice. (pursuit of common goals) Superordinate goal: a goal that neither group can achieve separately, but can achieve together since it is bigger than or more important than other lesser goals. Exp) Sherif's Robber's Cave experiment (1958) -Hypothesis: more intense competition (conflict�), more hostility. But when conflicts are reduced, hostility would decrease and cooperation will increase. -Methods: Design: Field experiment Participants: 20 boys, 11~12 years old with similar background and same grade level. They were considered normal and ordinary. Materials: A boy scout camp in the Robber's Cave, State Park, Oklahoma.

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  18. Addictive Behaviour

    Two strategies that have been used in the treatment of alcoholism are cognitive-behavioral therapy and 12-step facilitation. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the idea that irrational feelings and/or behaviors are caused by a person's thoughts not external events such as situations and events. When specifically dealing with alcoholism, the goal of this therapy is for an alcoholic to be able to identify and avoid situations where they are most likely to misuse the substance as well as to possibly cope with problems that lead to the misuse.

    • Word count: 836
  19. Personalida, temperamento y carcter

    La personalidad tambi�n implica previsibilidad sobre c�mo actuar� y c�mo reaccionar� una persona bajo diversas circunstancias. Existen distintas teor�as psicol�gicas que resaltan determinados aspectos de la personalidad y discrepan unas de otras sobre c�mo se organiza, sobre c�mo se desarrolla y c�mo se manifiesta en el comportamiento humano. Una de las teor�as m�s influyentes es la llamada psicoan�lisis, esta fue creada por Sigmund Freud, �l dec�a que los procesos del inconsciente dirigen gran parte del comportamiento de las personas. La formaci�n y desarrollo de la personalidad es altamente influenciada por la herencia y el ambiente en el que es criada la persona.

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  20. Attention Depisite Disorder

    In fact, the research showed that scores improved an average of seventeen percent, or two or three letter grades. The subjects of the study were forty-five teens that were diagnosed with ADHD who had enrolled in a University of Pittsburgh summer treatment program. Because ADHD affects more boys than girls, most of the participants were male. During the eight week study, the teens were given either Ritalin or a placebo three times per day with each day's third dose being half the size of the first and second.

    • Word count: 500
  21. Psychology Internal Assessment

    In his study, conducted in 1920, commanding officers in the American army were asked to rate their soldiers based on the categories of intelligence, physique, leadership and character. What Thorndike found was a high cross-correlation between all positive and all negative traits. After carrying out the study, Thorndike expanded his definition of the halo effect to be 'an extension of an overall impression of a person (or one particular outstanding trait) to influence the total judgement of that person.' This is the area of focus of our experiment.

    • Word count: 3050
  22. Dysfunctional behavior

    Every model of abnormality each has different assumptions about causes of dysfunctional behavior. The biological model is based on the assumptions that if the brain and biochemicals mediate psychological processes, so any abnormal or dysfunctional behaviors are determined physically and biologically. Thus, biological model assumes genetic, organic or chemical disorders cause mental illness which gives rise to psychological symptoms.

    • Word count: 313
  23. historical account of the approach to abnormality

    If peoples' acts were against the priesthood, it was always interpreted as cause by bad spirits. During the Middle Ages the Church also made religious explanations, possession by demons believed to explain abnormal behaviour. Exorcism was considered to be an efficient treatment. The dangerous situation of mentally ill individuals was illustrated in 1484, when the Pope issued a decree reminding his emissaries that sudden loss of reason, amongst other signs, should be regarded as one of the features of demonic possessions, for which the appropriate action was burning at the stake. However, saints who heard voices (for example Joan of Arc)

    • Word count: 1181
  24. Psychology essay-- Discuss the effectiveness of the biological perspective in explaining one psychological or social question.

    Research has verified this as an experiment carried out which involved ablation. The amygdala was removed from animals such as monkeys, rats and even humans and as a result it had reduced aggressive behaviour. Delagado stimulated areas of the limbic system and it provoked aggression in monkeys. He even inhibited aggression in a charging bull by a remote control to see how it would be provoked and reduced. "The amygdala, being the center for identification of danger, is fundamental for self preservation.

    • Word count: 903

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