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International Baccalaureate: Psychology

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  1. Evaluate two studies related to abnormal psychology

    Regarding the procedure of their study, they used a complex interview called the life events and difficulties scale (LEDS). A group of 539 women in Camberwell, London were interviewed using LEDS aimed to uncover stressful events in the previous years as well as childhood events. Events were rated by a panel of researchers who were blind. They provided evidence that both recent high levels of stress and having suffered a stressful childhood event left people particularly vulnerable to depression. In the previous year, 37 of them (8 per cent of the total)

    • Word count: 1202
  2. To what extent does genetic inheritance influence behavior?

    Through examining studies done by Christiansen and Bouken, we can conclude that only to an extent does genetics influence behaviour, as it is by no means the only explanation. A study done by Christiansen in 1977 looked at the extent of genetics through a twin study. He did this by looking specifically at criminal behaviour patterns of approximately 3,500 twins raised together. He looked at both monozygotic twins who are genetically identical and dizygotic twins who are relatively genetically similar. For monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins there was a 35% and 13% chance that both twins showed criminal behaviour, respectively.

    • Word count: 894
  3. Case Study of a Feral Child - Genie Wiley

    When she made noise, her father would beat her. Her father, mother, and brother rarely spoke to her. The rare times her father did interact with her, it was to bark or growl. 6. Both the general public and also the scientific community were interested in her case. Psycholinguist and author Harlan Lee explained that "our morality doesn?t allow us to conduct deprivation experiments with human beings, these unfortunate people are all we have to go on." 7. With so much interest in her case, the question became what should be done with her.

    • Word count: 1480
  4. Explain social identity theory

    the social identity theory is the following .Tajfel ?et al? recorded a study where 14 and 15 year old school boys from Bristol were assigned to one of two groups. They didn?t know the other members of their team . The experimenter led them to believe that they were assigned to groups based on their preference between Klee or Kandinsky .Each of the boys worked on his own trying to make a

    • Word count: 472
  5. Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process.

    By the age of 10, he started to have epileptic seizures and by the age of 27, the epileptic attacks prevented him from leading and living a normal life. Scovile performed an experimental surgery on H.M?s brain to stop the seizures and even though, they stopped he suffered from amnesia for the rest of his life. The case study of H.M provides information on how particular brain areas and networks are involved in memory processing. This helped scientists to formulate new theories about memory functioning.

    • Word count: 971
  6. The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism and collectivism

    Although individualism and collectivism cultural dimensions are not commonly researched, a few studies had been carried out. Such as Markus and Kitayama (1991) research on contrasting two different cultures; the 'westernized' and the 'non-westernized' culture, that is Japan and the United States, to see individuals from two different social groups dimensionsm, Geert Hofstede (1980) study on the IBM organisation's worldwide employees, and lastly Heine and Darrin Lehman (1995) study, on university students from different cultural backgrounds of positive and negative events that would happen to them and their views. These are examples of researches that I will be using in order to support my explanation of the individualism and collectivism cultural dimensions.

    • Word count: 909
  7. Discuss the effect of the environment (light) on one seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

    There are two different types of SAD - summer and winter (Boyce and Parker 1988). People who suffer from winter SAD have a longing for carbohydrates, gain weight and oversleep as well as severe depression. Furthermore, people with summer SAD lose appetite and weight and insomnia , again as well as depression. Melatonin, produced in the pineal gland effects mood and energy levels (For example melatonin produces serotonin which causes sleep) and is suggested by research to be the cause of this disorder.

    • Word count: 476
  8. Types of Altruism

    Though these are acts of kindness, I don?t consider them to be altruistic because they are part of my job description. There are different roles of altruism such as personal, professional, social responsibility, and codependency. Personal altruism is an individual?s own idea of how altruism is measured by how many good deeds they have done. Personal altruism can also be defined as someone doing a good deed because it means something special to them. The fundraiser I threw in honor of my mother would be an example of personal altruism.

    • Word count: 849
  9. Research Project - Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace.

    Emotions may occur because of individual, genetic make-up, and group factors. Individual emotions serve as an appetizer, and make one stay away from physical abuse. Individual emotions are unique because they often help with survival. Fear responses evoke either fight or flight. Devon (2006) pointed out that avoiding threats is what reflexes should do. Genes are supported by genetic emotions; including genetic conceptions, genetic sensations, and genetic involuntary expressions. Indeed, group emotions have a role in supporting the group solely. Communities, religions, countries, companies, professions, colleges, and social clubs are all groups.

    • Word count: 2127
  10. How Biological Factors Affect Cognitive Processes

    Damage to the neurotransmitter acetylcoline 2. Tangles are twisted fibers of the protein Tau that build up inside the cells 3. Plaques are deposits of a protein fragment called beta amyloid that build up in the spaces between the neurons 1. Plaques and tangles seem to begin in areas important to memory- hippocampus 2. Further damages spread to regions for thinking and planning: the frontal lobe 3.

    • Word count: 495
  11. Psychology IB Abnormality Notes

    Paragraph 1 1. Biological factors influencing abnormal behavior 2. Biological factors influencing bulimia? develop the explanation first BEFORE describing a study. 3. Twin, family research supports notion that bulimia could be inherited. Still in early stages. Twins share 100% of the genes, families also share a percentage of their genes, so it makes sense to suppose that if there is a higher concordance rate between twins and family members, then genetics could well be a determining factor. 1. Genetics (brand of biology studying the heredity and variation of organisms)

    • Word count: 16728
  12. Etiology of Eating Disorders

    1994), both by example and encouragement and by way of teasing for failure to adhere to peer norms. It is difï¬cult to weigh the relative importance of peer inï¬uence, as opposed, say, to the inï¬uence of the media or the family, which teach the same lessons; some evidence suggests that peers and family are more potent inï¬uences than the media (Stice 1998), whereas other studies ï¬nd the reverse (Wertheim et al. 1997). Moreover, peer inï¬uence, like these other inï¬uences, is so broad and pervasive that it ought to cause more pathology than actually occurs. Paxton et al.’s (1999)

    • Word count: 647
  13. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis

    Ishmael soon realizes that he is capable of truly horrific things. Wielding an AK-47 and hopped up on a cocktail of drugs, killing becomes as natural for Ishmael as playing soccer. The final period begins when he is placed in a rehabilitation center and finally accepts that he is still very much a child. At first, he is hesitant to trust, feel happiness, or accept the fact that he is not responsible for the many killings that he had done.

    • Word count: 5657
  14. Examine how one or more factors (biological, cognitive, socio-cultural) influence either one specific anxiety disorder or one specific eating disorder?

    However, conceptions of abnormality differ between cultures and have significant influence on the validity of diagnosis of mental disorders. In this sense, culture blindness may negatively affect the process of classification itself, as for example Rack (1982) found that if a member of a minority group exhibits a set of symptoms that are similar to that of a white British-born patient, then they are assumed to be suffering from the same disorder. Hence from the very beginning there is this difficulty of identifying PTSD since the borders between different mental disorders are fluid, constantly changing (for example, PTSD frequently occurs in conjunction with related disorders such as depression, substance abuse etc.

    • Word count: 1809
  15. Physiological and Evolutionary Influences on Psychology.

    For instance, the occipital lobe helps control ones sight but the temporal lobe controls the auditory cortex. Therefore, if one was limited by his vision, his temporal lobe would have been damaged. The discovery of this theory was founded by Paul Broca, a French anthropologist and physician who stated that when a part of the brain is disrupted, that specific function carried out by that specific part of the brain will be impaired. When he later investigated on stroke victims, he realized that his patients had problems producing speech but were very much capable in understanding them.

    • Word count: 625
  16. Schema Theory and Theories of Cognitive Processes

    An experiment study was carried out, to study the effect of schemas on memory by Bartlett, in 1932. Twenty English participants were asked to read ?The War of the Ghosts?, a Native American folk tale, and recall the story. The result was that each time the participants were asked to recall the story, it got shorted. After 6 times of reproducing the story, it had been reduced from 330 words to 180. Not only had the participants made the story shorter, but had also added their own interpretation of certain aspects unimportant or incoherent in a typical, western story.

    • Word count: 1207
  17. Flashbulb memory

    Brown and Kulik (1977) asked 80 American participants (40 white and 40 black) to answer questions about 10 events. Nine of the events were mostly assassinations or attempted assassinations of well-known American personalities (e.g. J.F.K, Martin Luther King). The tenth was a self-selected event of personal relevance and involving unexpected shock e.g. death of a friend or a serious accident. Participants were asked to recall the circumstances they found themselves in when they first heard the news about the 10 events.

    • Word count: 477
  18. Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour

    Short term orientation cultures are not concerned with past traditions. They are impatient, present focused and strive for immediate success. According to Matsumoto and Juang 2008, in practical terms time orientation refers to the degree to which cultures will delay gratification of material, social and emotional needs among their members. 7 of the 10 highest ranking countries on Hofstede?s time orientation dimension were in Asia. Western countries tend to be more short term orientated. There have been several pieces of research into time orientation. Chen et al 2005 is a notable one.

    • Word count: 1412
  19. Factors Influencing Conformity

    There was actually only one real participant in the experimental set-up and six were confederates who were previously instructed to give unanimous wrong answers. This was done during 12 of the 18 trials. He also used a control group of 37 participants where those participants made the estimates alone for comparison to the experimental group. The results showed that the mean conformity rate was 32%. However, nobody conformed on all 12 trials, but 75% conformed at least once. 26% never conformed.

    • Word count: 1220
  20. How successful is the Social Learning Theory in explaining Bahaviour?

    It was found that boys were four times more likely than girls to display physical aggression, but levels of verbal aggression were about the same. These results of Bandura?s studies provided support for the influence of modelling on learning. A later study by Bandura in 1965 showed that witnessing the model being punished for the aggressive behaviour decreased the likelihood that children would imitate the behaviour. Rotter supported this latter study on the consequences aggressive behaviour in one of his studies, stating that people wish to avoid negative consequences, and desire positive results or effects.

    • Word count: 824
  21. Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process.

    This resulted in Wearing to have the inability to form memories of new information, which is known as anterograde amnesia. As well as this he is also unable to form new long-term memories, which is called retrograde amnesia. Despite not being able to form new long-term memories, Clive could still remember things that were very important to him in his life. For example his wife, for whom he still clearly shows a lot of love. Although he remembers her, due to the damage to his hippocampus it has resulted in him not being able to remember when he has last

    • Word count: 1083
  22. Review of "The Social Animal" by David Brooks

    The problem with this dichotomy is that scientist like David Brooks are telling us neither of these is correct. The Social Animal by David Brooks is another cynical article. Incredibly cynical and as a result, I liked it just about as much as the past two. Brooks shows the reader that there is no such thing as free will. Everything in our personality, our tendencies, and even whom we love is governed absolutely by predictable biological processes in our brain.

    • Word count: 471
  23. Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact

    According to Bowlby, infants need to be physically close to the caregiver to form an enduring emotional bond. Sensitive care giving and consistent responsiveness to the infant?s signals such as crying, smiling or any other physical movement, is fundamental for the infant?s development of secure attachment. Children are biologically preprogrammed to form attachments with others because they know it will most likely help them survive; it is instinctive and is activated by any conditions that may threaten their proximity with the people they bond with, insecurity and fear. In contrast, if caregivers provide insensitive and inconsistent care, babies develop alternative strategies for interaction such as tuning away from caregivers (avoidant attachment), simultaneously seeking and resisting contact (resistant attachment)

    • Word count: 601
  24. Notes on brain scanning - PET and FMRI (Fictional Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    It helped neuroscientists to develop methods to detect the signs of Alzheimer?s disease. It is a useful tool in screening for Alzheimer?s in people who do not yet show any symptoms of the disease. Allows researchers to look at cross-sectional ?slices? of the brain, and therefore observe deep brain structures, which earlier techniques like EEGs could not. Disadvantages, limitations or concerns Because the doses of radiotracer administered are small, diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures result in relatively low radiation exposure to the patient, acceptable for diagnostic exams. Thus, the radiation risk is very low compared with the potential benefits.

    • Word count: 750
  25. Neuroplasticity is the brains ability to change and lay down new neuron pathways as individuals are exposed to new environments

    These rats were left in the assigned cages for a duration of a month. After 30 days, Rosenzweig and Benson yield significant results using the differentiation in brain and synaptic activity between all three rats. The enriched rats had a heavier cerebral cortex, involving the responses to experience and is responsible for many mental functions for example, memory, and produced larger neurons, which implies a greater chemical activity. One can conclude that the exposure to a natural environment that challenges and improves learning abilities can alter the brain to increase neuron activity and thus develop a greater number of skills and enhance knowledge capacity.

    • Word count: 1180

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