• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17

An experiment to investigate whether word connotation truly does have an effect on memory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Internal Assessment Psychology HL An experiment to investigate whether word connotation truly does have an effect on memory Bobae Choi May 2012 1897 words Abstract This replication of Loftus and Palmer?s (1974) experiment has the aim to investigate if word connotation truly does have an effect on memory and was experimented on twenty (ten males, ten females) grade twelve history students in a high school in Langley, B.C. The research hypothesis is that speed estimates will be statistically significant depending on the aggressiveness or passiveness of the word. As a result of being an experiment, the independent variable is the connotation of the word (smashed or contacted) and the dependent variable is the speed estimate from the train when crashing into the school bus. The numerical descriptive statistics used range and median because ordinal data was present. Two results were produced from the median, with the range produced 71 for smashed and 51 for contacted and the verb smashed being 40 and 50 for the word contacted. Using the Mann Whitney U test for inferential statistics, the critical value of U was found to be less than both the smallest values of U1 and U2; as a result the null hypothesis shall be accepted therefore concluding that there is no significant statistical difference on memory through positive and negative connotations in this experiment. ...read more.

Middle

With these outcomes, it shows that schema indeed affects both the encoding and retrieving memory. The study of Loftus and Palmer (1974) was being replicated because there felt the need to investigate and find out whether memory is a fully trustworthy source of information or not. The aim of this replicated study is to examine the effects of word connotations having a statistically significant effect on speed estimates. The research hypothesis (is two tailed because there are two possible outcomes for this experiment, with the connotation having either an effect or no effect on the accuracy of the speed estimate) is that the connotation of the word will lead to a statistically significant effect on the accuracy of the speed estimates and the null hypothesis is that the connotation of the word will not have a statistically significant effect on the accuracy of speed estimates. Method Design Independent measures were used for the design for this research because if a participant were to be asked both questions with both verbs, he/she may be able to figure out what the research was actually looking for. The independent variable of this experiment was the word connotation (aggressiveness vs. passivity) and the dependent variable is the accuracy of the speed estimate. ...read more.

Conclusion

Limitations in the research design could have been the knowledge of the experiment beforehand since there was a high chance of the participants already knowing what the experiment was about (demand characteristics). This would have been easily avoided by using classes that haven?t been taught psychology or haven?t been experimented on. Another limitation of this research was its sample size, which can make it much more difficult to compare to a larger portion of the world, such as the term generalizability. This can be avoided by finding a larger population to make this experiment more reliable. Limitations in the procedure could be that the participants may have been exchanging information with their peers which ruins the credibility of their own answer. In conclusion, this experiment failed to match Loftus? and Palmer?s (1974) research. The data that was collected during this experiment proved to not support the theory of schema because of many problems that came up which ultimately lead to non-statistical significant number changes. Things that would have greatly improved this research would be fixing the limitations (such as the sample size and knowledge by going into other areas across the world and getting the participants? knowledge information beforehand to switch participant groups). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Internal Assessment : Loftus and Palmer Study

    The five categories of students were asked this question but with a different verb. Loftus and Palmer wanted to see if the verb influenced the student's answers. Loftus and Palmer concluded this experiment stating that the research suggests that memory is easily distorted because of the questioning technique after that event that produces and effect of reconstructive memory.

  2. Internal Assessment : Stroop Effect

    Just like the original Stroop Effect, stimulus #3 was the hardest one to complete. Our experiment was not identical to the original conducted by J R Stroop because our stimuli were different to his but they were very similar to each other.

  1. The effect and role of organization on memory and recall

    For example, they recalled names of the animals together first and then the places and so forth in a certain order. Tulving (1980) claimed that even in the absence of an experimenter imposing organization, subjective organization occurs, whereby the learner organizes the material himself/herself.

  2. EE PSYCHOLOGY

    Hence forward researchers began to seek for evidence of comparable human mental processes in other species. This was in a way a return to conventional Darwin's approach. Radical behaviourism is greatly dependent on evolutionary biology explaining which limitations and abilities an organisms body has, and which it finds as primary reinforcements.

  1. An experiment investigating the effect of background music on students ability to recall a ...

    This design was employed as effects such as fatigue, boredom and previous exposure to the material provided are unlikely to factor into the results. By using this method, demand characteristics are less of a problem as the participants are kept naive to the stimulus material until during the experiment.

  2. IA stroop effect

    The time taken for each test was recorded. The procedure was conducted twice for each participant. Lastly, the participants were questioned about their performance and reaction to the experiment. The researcher noted the answers on the raw data collection sheet (Appendix iii), along with incidents where participants encountered difficulties.

  1. Internal Assessment on Stroop Effect

    We, as experimenters changed the response of our subject (word vs. color recognition). This resulted in a change of reaction time for the participants; the dependent variable. Prior to conducting the experiment, all subjects signed a consent form in order to ensure their willingness to participate.

  2. IB Psychology Experiment - Our aim is to determine the effect of gender on ...

    still be some people hanging around in the cafeteria and they could be loud. Once again, the independent variable is gender and the dependent variable is the participants' awareness level. Procedures: 1. We would pick 10 females and 10 males high school students from Kaohsiung American School through opportunity sampling.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work