• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cultural Barriers in Multicultural Psychotherapy -A.W.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐CULTURAL BARRIERS IN MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOTHERAPY C ultural barriers are sources of bias that can play a significant role in the effectiveness of multicultural psychotherapy. Culture-related, class-related, and language-related barriers are three major (and over-lapping) sources of potential bias identified in the seminal writings of Derztld W. Sue and David Sue. Each source of bias can produce problems that may affect the initiation, continuation, and success of psychotherapy. Among the problems that may arise are the misinterpretation of a client's cultural norms as symptoms of a disorder: misunderstanding of culture-bound syndromes and socio-political reasons for client behavior: and the misuse of interpreters. Culture comprises the values, beliefs, and norms that are shared by a group of people. such as a racial on ethnic minority. Culture influences how people think about, act on, and see the world. Traditional psychotherapy theories and the mainstream European American/Caucasian culture in the United States (referred to as "Caucasian culture") share common values and beliefs that can be barriers in multicultural psychotherapy. Examples of these commonalities are the emphasis placed on the use of standard English. direct verbal expression, and long-term goals: the distinction between physical and mental well-being: and the determination of cause?effect relationships. CULTURE-RELATED BARRIERS Culture-related barriers in psychotherapy stem from cultural differences between therapists (who are predominantly Caucasian in the United States) and their clients. ...read more.

Middle

value indirectness and subtlety in communication. Many cultures prefer not to be so straightforward in questioning and responding, and this may lead the therapist to a negative interpretation of the client?s behaviour (e.g., the client is nonresponsive and withdrawn). Distinctions between mental and physical health are generally more clearly marked for Caucasians than for non-Caucasians. Non-Caucasian cultures are less likely to separate the mind and body and may be confused by the distinction in traditional psychotherapy. These clients may expect to receive the kind of treatment typically provided by physicians and the clergy. This includes immediate and tangible solutions such as advice and medication. Traditional therapies are more ambiguous and long term and tend to be less consistent with the expectations of non-Caucasian cultures. Culture-bound syndromes can also play a role in creating cultural barriers in therapy. Some syndromes seem to exist only in certain cultures, and they may be mistakenly viewed as indicative of pathology. For example, many Latinos believe in the evil eye, a syndrome of distress also known as ?mal de ojo?). Patients with this syndrome believe that when a person is given the evil eye by another, he or she will experience misfortunes in his or her career, love, and family life. In this case, the therapist may incorrectly conclude that the client is paranoid because of the client?s perceived preoccupation with people causing him or her harm. ...read more.

Conclusion

Nonverbal communication differences occur in the areas of proxemics (personal space), kinesics (bodily movements), paralanguage (vocal cues, e.g., vocal inflections), and high- and low-con-text communication. High-context communication relies heavily on nonverbal messages, whereas low-context communication relies more on verbal messages. Misunderstandings can result from differences in nonverbal messages?for example, a therapist may mistakenly assume that a Latino client?s lack of eye contact is indicative of unassertiveness or depression, although the behaviour may be a culturally related sign of respect. When a therapist uses an interpreter, several problems may occur. For example, the interpreter may not translate accurately, especially when it comes to mental health concepts that vary in meaning across cultures, and there may be concerns about dual relationships and loss of confidentiality. When a family member is used as an interpreter, his or her own concerns may affect the information that is transmitted and thus the power balance. Ideally, the interpreter is trained professionally. The interpreter should be fluent in both languages and know and understand the terminology the therapist uses. Moreover, the therapist and interpreter should meet before and after a counseling session with a client to answer any questions the interpreter may have and to review the important aspects of the translation. Important Note: This work is owed to the ?Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology?, published by the ?Sage Publications? in 2006. Please acknowledge this information if you are to use this work for any of your writings. Thank You. -A.W. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Examine the Concepts of Normality & Abnormality

    Major exceptions exist; in the case of bereavement, considered a major grief reaction 'with cause', depressed or even suicidal feelings may still be regarded as normal. What was a marked change in DSM-III compared to previous manuals, and indeed

  2. Multicultural Competency. Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word paper based on your assessment, in ...

    Throughout my life, I have grown-up surrounded and amidst diversity. My best childhood friend was African American and I never gave her race a second thought.[DD2] Growing up in a family that does not "see" color and possessing a father whose best friend was of a different race, kept me from understanding and knowing racism.

  1. Psychology IB Abnormal Notes and Essay Plans

    terms, as they think that the AA is less socially competent than the European Woman 2. Conclusion: diagnosis will allow the patient to have a label that may be unnecessary and incorrect due to racial discrimination by psychiatrists 1. ADD TO CONCLUSION â PROJECT INTO THE FUTURE Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis 1.

  2. Evaluate the role that one cultural dimension (e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance) may have on ...

    However, this study is an experiment. It is artificial and has limited ecological validity. Furthermore, the participants are only from Korea and America. They may not be a good representation for collectivistic culture and individualist culture. It can be argued that the results have limited generalizability to other cultures.

  1. Outline the principles of social cultural level of analysis and explain how they ...

    The questionnaires were given to participants about asking someone to watch luggage in an airport, allowing someone to borrow money at a restaurant, and buying concert tickets online from an individuals. Later they were told to decide which person you would trust from any of the scenarios defined above.

  2. To What Extent Can Music Improve a Child's Intelligence?

    All of the students also had English as a second language, which would make it more difficult to generalise these results. The last major limitation is that one of the researchers and a music teacher had been instructing the children.

  1. The two roles of cultural dimensions on behaviour that I will examine are individualism ...

    Cultural factors are what influences self concepts, in this case individualism and collectivism illustrates this, where for example in Japan the saying "the nail that stands out gets pounded down" and in the United States the saying "squeaky wheel gets the grease".

  2. Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour

    Chen et al 2005 is a notable one. In eastern countries, where long term orientation is prevalent, patience is valued more than in Western countries. Chen et al conducted an experimental study using 147 Singaporean ?bicultural participants? (exposed extensively to Singaporean and American culture) and assumes that both can affect behaviour depending on which is more active in the mind at a particular time.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work