• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Essay outline for Topic 2 & 3

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Essay outline - "Reduction of Prejudice" ?Prejudice: when we allow our stereotypes to affect our attitude. Prejudice is an attitude whereas discrimination is a behavior. The term prejudice refers to the general attitude structure and its affective component. Prejudice can in fact be either negative or positive. Specifically, prejudice is defined as a hostile or negative attitude toward people in a distinguishable group. When the prejudiced attitude leads to prejudiced action, this is called discrimination. The origin of prejudice and discrimination is conflict and stereotype. A stereotype is a generalization about a particular group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to all members of that group, regardless of any variation among group members. However, there are a variety of different factors that could reduce prejudice and discrimination: Co-operation over superordinate goals can reduce prejudice. A superordinate goal is a goal that neither group can achieve separately, but can achieve together since it is bigger than or more important than other lesser goals. This idea is supported by a study of Sherif, the Robber's Cave Experiment (1958). The aim of this study was not only to find out how the hostility relates to the amount of conflict, but also to see if superordinate goals reduce the conflict and prejudice. He had 20 boys of the age of 11 to 12 who had similar background and were considered normal and ordinary. The study was carried out in Robber's Cave State Park, Oklahoma. The boys stayed at the camp, which was called a boy scout camp, for 3 weeks and were randomly divided into two groups. ?Argument 1: Co-operation over superordinate goals reduces prejudice. ...read more.

Middle

-Methods: Design: experiment Participants: a class of 3rd grade students in Riceville, Iowa. Procedure: a class teacher called Jane Elliott tried 1. She told her class that the brown-eyed children would be the ruling class for the day, and the blue-eyed children were to be kept in their place. Ingroup and outgroup were formed, and the blue-eyed children began to do badly in their school work quite quickly, and became depressed. 2. The next day Elliott told the children that she had lied, and that it was the blue-eyed children who were the ruling class, so the brown-eyed were inferior. The ingroup and outgroup were reversed, and the brown-eyed children quickly discriminated against. 3. She debriefed the children and explained to them the idea that if they had experienced prejudice and discrimination, they would not be so likely to be prejudiced themselves. Result: Children learned how negative discrimination is. The children on top did better academically, and the children on the bottom did badly. Years later, the students were brought back together. They said that the experience helped a lot in changing their stereotypes and their behavior toward stereotypical people. Evaluation: (+) Reduces discrimination, prejudice (-) High ecological validity, nothing artificial, happened in real life (-) can be generalized, many replications made Weber and Crocker (1983) Proposed three possible models for revising stereotypical beliefs: -the bookkeeping model, wherein each piece of disconfirming information modifies the stereotype -the conversion mode, wherein the stereotype radically changes in response to a powerful piece of information and -the subtyping model, wherein new subtype or subcategory stereotypes are created to support the disconfirming information. Exp: Aim: to test each of the models -subjects were presented with information that disconfirmed their stereotypes about two occupational groups: librarians and corporate lawyers. ...read more.

Conclusion

After the participant responded, the confed. on the tape stuttered badly and sounded as if he were having a seizure: � "I could really-er-use some help so if somebody would-er-give me a little h-help-uh-er-er-er-er..." � - Latane and Darley measured percentage of students in each group who left their cubicle and notified the experimenter; also the amount of time it took - ppt. given 4 minutes to respond Results: � 2-people group: 85% responded and reported the seizure in less than one minute � 6-people group: 31% responded and it took longer than 3 minutes Conclusion: � Ppts' response to emergency was strongly affected by size of the group � The more bystanders in a situation, the less likely the victim will be helped => bystander effect Evaluation of experiment: Limitations: - Unethical (ppts were deceived, no informed consent) - All ppts were college students - Questionable eco. validity - students comm. through intercom system, whereas in real-life you would see the person in need of help - Cultural differences Strengths: - Illustrated the bystander effect - Well-planned procedure - Good control Evaluation of Theory: (+) lot of evidence, less abstract (+) Reliable, replicated and obtained similar results, done extensively and accurately (+) Lesson to assess situation and decide well (-) Population sample, all college students (+/-) High ecological validity: real life situation, low ecological validity: artificial, used intercom system. (-) Situational influences might have applied and affected the result. Ex) having an ally: if there is an ally, one is more likely to act similar, cost benefit: if one concluded that a certain action of helping ensued more benefit, more likely to help, entrapment (smoke study) and other experimental environment might have affected result. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. IA stroop effect

    Memory & Cognition Volume 26(2), pages 201-211. Found at http://arts.waterloo.ca/-cmacleod/Research/Publications2.htm. Last updated: 4 January 2010. Viewed 3 February 2010. DICTIONARIES * New Oxford American Dictionary. Macintosh OS X. * Oxford American Writer's Thesaurus. Macintosh OS X. APPENDICES Appendix i (a)

  2. An experiment investigating the effect of background music on students ability to recall a ...

    * Possible risks you will be exposed to: Minor mental strain, possible risk of embarrassment and possible discomfort. * Benefits from your participation in the study: Learning the effect of background music of memory recall. Knowing whether or not listening to music is beneficial for studying.

  1. Social Psychology - Blue Eyes vs. Brown Eyes Jane Elliot Film Analysis

    gave an incorrect response. Due to the authority of the experimenter, many participants complied with the point where they were administering lethal doses of electricity. 13. Cultural norms are behaviour patterns that are typical of specific groups, often passed down generation to generation.

  2. Stroop Effect

    Inspection time is the speed the stimulus intake. Deary and Stough 1996 claims to have a high correlation between inspection time and IQ. Reaction time is an individual's time to see how quickly the information is processed. This slow processing of information means the individual cannot handle complex questions.

  1. Internal Assessment on Stroop Effect

    There were eight females (two aged 14 and six aged 15) and ten males (two aged 14 and 8 aged 15). All subjects are from Year 10 at Dubai International Academy, and were selected at random in order to avoid any cultural or gender biases.

  2. Psychology IB Abnormal Notes and Essay Plans

    Or using the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Association) and ICD (international classification of diseases) 1. Focus on research studies related to the reliability and validity of different etiologies of abnormal behaviors Paragraph 1 1. Interviews 1. Advantages 1. Gathering qualitative data 2. Can be in depth or very brief 3.

  1. To what extent is positive education in classroom settings successful in enhancing students happiness?

    Flow can come from many different things, from rock climbing to working at a production line. If you have a lot of flow experiences in your daily life it is said to be an engaged life. The last component of happiness is concentrated around creating meaning in your life.

  2. Is eyewitness testimony reliable?

    Some researchers have questioned whether attentional focus is a reason that causes poor recall of a violent incident. Clifford and Scott (1978) as cited in the article Eyewitness Testimony Psychology, found that when individuals witness a rather violent incident they seem to remember less than individuals who witness a non-violent incident.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work