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EXAMINATION REVISION GUIDE

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Introduction

EXAMINATION REVISION GUIDE FIRST: READ THE UNIT OBJECTIVES - MANY QUESTIONS HAVE BEEN DIRECTLY DRAWN FROM THESE 1. Explain how cultural, ethical, gender and methodological considerations may affect the interpretation of behaviour *note - you must address (at least one) of the bolded areas in the extended response - if not, the maximum mark you get is 5/20 2. Describe, compare and evaluate historical and cultural contexts, frameworks, methodologies and applications for each perspective (i.e., the content topics) *note - when you sit down at your exam you should be able to reproduce your own version of a table addressing each of the content topics for each perspective (see my attached exemplar; the time spent doing this and PLANNING your responses in the exam will make a huge difference to the quality of your answer (and your subsequent mark) 3. Describe and evaluate theories and empirical studies of each perspective DO YOU KNOW WHAT A THEORY IS? If not - find out DO YOU KNOW WHAT AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IS? If not - find out *note - in the introductory section of ANY response you need to STATE the key theory(ies) of a perspective (use the Crane site if you do not know); if you have a theory - you must have a THEORIST; Can you identify and explain the work of at least 3 key theorists/psychologists from each of these perspectives (and the one you are doing for your IA)? ...read more.

Middle

solving o Cognitive dissonance * Laboratory experimentation * Clinical interviews * Verbal protocols * Ethical considerations Basic Assumptions Strengths and weaknesses * Mental processes can and should be investigated scientifically. * Models of psychological functions can be proposed. * Cognitive processes actively organize and manipulate information that we receive - humans are not passive responders to their environment. Soft determinism. * Non-human animals may be used to help understand human behaviour. * It investigates many areas of behaviour ignored by the learning perspective, using rigorous scientific methods. * Explanations at a functional, psychological level rather than a reductionist approach. * It has combined with other perspectives to strengthen its explanations - e.g. neuropsychology. * Overly simplistic - computer model disregards the complexity of human behaviour. * Overly hypothetical * Objectification of its participants * Question of mundane vs. psychological reality * Sampling is YAVIS (Eyseneck) LEARNING PERPSECTIVE FROM CRANE'S SITE - KNOW THIS BY HEART - AND BE ABLE TO EXPAND HIGHLIGHTED SECTIONS Historical Development and Cultural Context Application o Criticisms of the Psychodynamic perspective o Emphasis on scientific study o Learning theory in education o Behavioural therapies Key Concepts Methodology o Classical and operant conditioning o The Law of Effect o Social Learning Theory o Learned helplessness o Latent learning o Instinctual shift * Experimentation * Observation * Reliability - external and internal * Ecological validity * Use of animals in research ...read more.

Conclusion

* Practical applications have been extremely effective. * Reductionist - Biopsychological theories often over-simplify the huge complexity of physical systems andtheir interaction with the environment. * It has not explained how mind and body interact - consciousness and emotion are difficult to study objectiv LEARNING COGNITION BIOLOGICAL HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL CONDITIONS LEADING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERPSECTIVE See Concept map - How psychology developed (Weiten) Criticisms of the Psychodynamic perspective. Emphasis on scientific study. READ Schwartz (1987) - Memory KEY CONCEPTS AND THEORETICAL EXPLANATIONS See Concept map - How psychology developed (Weiten); handout - overview of contemporary theoretical perspectives Text Chp7; READ Schwartz (1987) - the conditioned reflex; * Classical conditioning - Pavlov; Watson, Mary Cover Jones * Operant Conditioning - Skinner * Observational Learning be able to *describe and evaluate theories; * evaluate explanations (ie strengths and limitations) Text Chp 8; Read Neath (2003) The modal model SCIENTIFIC STUDY Text Chp2 Research (methodologies - participants, design,materials, procedure) & ethics READ Schwartz (1987) - psychology and Science Ecological validity * Concord - units-research methods-reliability and validity article EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CURRENT APPLICATIONS READ Smith 2002 - Conditioning and advertising Classical = treating phobias; see Daly Learning notes Concord; Ethics controversy = aversion therapies Operant = behaviour modifiaction READ Smith 2002 - Biases in Memory ACROSS ALL : FREE WILL AND DETERMININSM ?? ?? ?? ?? Dr C Daly QASMT 1 ...read more.

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