• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examine/ discuss the concepts of normality and abnormality

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Examine/ discuss the concepts of normality and abnormality First of all, it is difficult to define ?abnormal behaviour?, therefore difficult to diagnose as well Various definitions of abnormality Deviation from social norms One way to define abnormality is to consider when behaviour violates social norms or makes others anxious. However there is a flaw in this definition, depending what culture you are in will affect how people view social norms, what is seen as normal in one culture may be abnormal in another. Failure to function adequately Rosenhan and Seligman (1984): seven criteria that could be used to decide whether a person or a behaviour is normal or not. Maladaptiveness Observer discomfort Unpredictability Suffering Irrationality Vividness and unconventionality Violation of moral or ideal standards Deviation from ideal mental health Jahoda (1958): Very vague Efficient self-perception Realistic self-esteem and acceptance Voluntary control of behaviour True perception of the world Sustaining relationships and giving affection Self-direction and productivity Deviation from statistical norms Behavioural measures like intelligence and short-term memory tend to be normally distributed (distribution from a sample of people tends to fall within a bell-shaped curve) ...read more.

Middle

Frude (1998): few psychological disorders that can be associated to physiological reasons Pilowsky (2006) Neuropsychologists today have revealed possible chemical abnormality in the brain (temporal cortex) of people with Schizophrenia. However, brain scans haven?t yet provided an ultimate answer to the questions raised by Szasz What must happen for the classification system to be considered valid? Which symptoms would you look for when diagnosing someone with MHD? ROSENHAN (1973) Aim: To investigate whether psychiatrists were able to distinguish the difference between people who were genuinely mentally ill (insane) and those who weren?t (sane). To investigate the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis and the impact of labeling. Method Field experiment 8 healthy researchers (5 males, 3 females) including Rosenhan Attempted to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals All but one got in by saying they could hear voices Seven were diagnosed as having schizophrenia The only way to get out of the hospital was to convince the staff that they were sane (said they were fine, no longer experiencing the symptoms) Pseudo patients spent their time talking to other patients, making observations and notes of patients and staff Finding Each participant was ...read more.

Conclusion

pseudo patients would have gone into the study with a biased view about how the insane are treated and this could affect their views of how the real patients were treated. Subjective Ethical considerations- this experience of being treated with a label may have mentally hurt them Reductionist- reduces schizophrenia to an explanation of how labeling affects the patients negatively and how they conform to the label Cultural bias- this was done in the US, can?t generalize to other countries and also ethnocentric Small number of pseudo patients went into the hospitals, participated in the study Hawthorne affect- real patients could have changed their behaviour, as they may have known researchers of some kind were observing them Other studies He was not content with the findings of this study so he decided to investigate if abnormal individuals could be classified as normal. He told the staff at a psychiatric hospital that pseudo-patients would try to gain admittance. However no pseudo-patients appeared, but 41 real patients were judged with great confidence to be pseudo patients by at least one member of staff. Some of these genuine patients were suspected of being frauds. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Examine the Concepts of Normality & Abnormality

    normal from those classified under Rosenhan & Seligman as being abnormal, or vice-versa. This ambiguity has created much room for subjectivism, demonstrated by the growing dependence on social judgement for what constitutes "efficient", "realistic" or even what is considered as "true perception of the world" when the criteria are applied.

  2. The Basic Mechanisms of Homeostasis Overview of homeostasis The term homeostasis was ...

    It is a news and current affairs radio station designed for the 'multi-cultural' Latino population, which by 2010 will become the second largest ethnic group in the USA. According to the Marxist perspective, persons with power, that is, access to such resources as capital and technology, decide what and when to produce cultural products like Latino USA.

  1. Psychology IB Abnormal Notes and Essay Plans

    misunderstood for the cause to be merely an imbalance of this kind. Paragraph 2 1. Cognitive factors influencing abnormal behavior 2. Cognitive factors influencing abnormal behavior 1. The way that people think affecting their behavior (schemas) 1. psychological disturbances come from irrational and illogical thinking 1.

  2. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis ...

    claimed that in hurry to establish some form of identity, the adolescent will ?stereotype themselves, their ideals, and their enemies? (p.133). As mentioned above, Ishmael and his childhood friends had identified with the artists in the hip-hop culture. They aspired to be like the artists that they tried to imitate.

  1. Psychology IB Abnormality Notes

    Problems with twin research and family researches: 1. May be because they were raised in the same environment, 2. Unethical, may have joined twins of families together that didn?t expect so 3. Useful to study, similar genetics 4. Generalized 5.

  2. Using empirical evidence examine the concepts of normality and abnormality

    This disorder is much more common in China than depression. One reason could be that it is less stigmatizing in the Chinese culture. Another explanation could be that it fits better with the traditional way of explaining causes of disease in terms of disharmony of vital organs and imbalance of Qi.

  1. Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis of abnormal psychology.

    This is due by the fact that when a diagnosis is made, often people feel as if they are someone else. Other people too are often regarding these as people who can be addressed to that specific group only. This causes in men and women less desire to be helped for the fear of being left alone.

  2. Where does Schizophrenia Lie in the Spectrum of Nature vs Nurture?

    Residual Schizophrenia is when a person has had at least one schizophrenic episode but does not necessarily have symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations. They may have negative symptoms however, that include being withdrawn from others (Undifferentiated Schizophrenia). Schizophrenia Symptoms As mentioned above, there are five different subtypes of schizophrenia and each of them has different symptoms and risk factors.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work