• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process.

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Emaan Jadoon 10/13/12 12G Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process. Cognitive processes are imperative for human behavior since their core is about knowledge and they way people use that knowledge under certain circumstances. For example, our brain has different areas in which our memory, emotions, and perception are stored and all that is stored is fairly accurate. Also, our brain stores memory in phases and then we retrieve it through language since the language of the brain is translated to the language of our body allowing us to understand the stored memory. Eventually, the stored memories lead us to learning and finally to intelligence. However, at times our biological factors such as hormonal levels or different areas of the brain are damaged in such a way that they hinder our instinct to use our cognitive abilities. In 1957, Scoville and Milner attempted the case study of H.M. H.M was a 7 year old boy who fell off from his bicycle and ended up with an injury to his head. ...read more.


The hippocampus plays a critical role in converting memories of experiences from STM to LTM. H.M was able to retain some memories for events that happened long before his surgery. This indicates that the medial temporal lobe with the hippocampus is not the site of permanent storage in itself. It rather seems to play a role in how memories are organized and then stored elsewhere in the brain. The medial temporal region with the hippocampus is important for forming, organizing, consolidating, and retrieving memory. Cortical areas are important for long term storage of knowledge and how to use this knowledge in everyday situations. The fact that H.M and other people have amnesia have deficits in some types of memories but not in others is taken as evidence that the brain has multiple memory systems that are supported by distinct brain regions. The relationship between H.M?s brain damage and his memory deficits is that in 1997, Corkin used MRI scans and analyzed the extent of the damage to H.M?s brain and found out that: part of the temporal lobes including the hippocampus and related structures on both sides were missing. ...read more.


of the hippocampus. They also found out that memory impairment can only be reversed if the damage had not progressed to a ?point of no return.? Lupien in 2002 did an experiment on cortisol level and memory and the aim of the study was to follow up with two groups of the elderly people from the five year study and whether it was possible to reverse memory problems with a drug. The procedure was that the participants were divided into two groups: the first group had a moderate level of cortisol at baseline and the second group had high level of cortisol and signs of impaired memory at baseline. Both groups were given first a drug preventing secretion of cortisol (metyrapone). Then they had to do a memory test. After this, they were given another drug (hydrocortisone) to restore their level of cortisol to previous levels. The results showed that participants with a moderate level of cortisol who were given metyrapone had no problem restoring normal memory function. Participants, who from the start, had a high level of cortisol, had no memory impairment and hydrocortisone caused even greater memory loss. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. how did Freud's life affect his theories?

    The 'psycho-sexual stages' are another of Freud's theories. These stages indicate a sexual component of physiological development. These stages broke down development up until puberty into five different stages. This theory is where we find the controversial 'Oedipus' and 'Electra' complexes, in which Freud suggests that between the ages of

  2. Clive Wearing and HM - Two Evaluations of Brain Function and memory loss.

    HM Clive Wearing Research methods that were used on HM mainly included interviews with the patient and people who they regularly interacted with, as well as observation of the patient Research methods that were used on Clive Wearing were mainly interviews with the patient as well as interviews with the patient's wife.

  1. Examine how one or more factors (biological, cognitive, socio-cultural) influence either one specific anxiety ...

    not necessarily state that the traumatic memories will not appear later in life, but only that during the time of the experiment, it was noticed an improvement regarding the patients? reaction when exposed to similar stimuli as those in the traumatic event.

  2. This essay will evaluate flashbulb memory on how emotion can affect cognitive process.

    farther in distance from the event and had less of an emotional impact; instead they performed better when recalling for summer holiday memories. These findings, however, were not consistent in the results of flashbulb memory?s need of a specialized neural mechanism that evokes emotional influence.

  1. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis ...

    Inhelder & Piaget (1955) claimed that formal operational capacities might contribute to the self-questioning period of adolescence (p.298). While Ishmael struggles with this internal conflict, his primary concern is survival. As Ishmael put it: ?to survive each passing day was my goal in life? (Beah p.69).

  2. Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process.

    seen her and therefore every time she walks into the room he greets her as if they haven?t seen each other in years., showing that his implicit memory is intact Seeing that he was a musician his ability to play the piano and conduct music are still intact because before

  1. Evaluate the role that one cultural dimension (e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance) may have on ...

    This is supported by a cross-cultural study done by Bond and Smith (1996). Bond and Smith (1996) carried out a meta-analysis of 133 conformity studies all using the Asch paradigm. The studies were carried out in 17 countries. Results showed that more conformity was obtained in collectivistic countries than individualistic countries.

  2. To What Extent Is Memory A Reliable Process?

    There were, however, eight participants who recalled for the unusual objects in the scene. The researchers? findings concluded that though memory recall comprised of characteristics within a scope of a schema, there is still reason to speculate. The eight participants demonstrated that in some circumstances, recalling for the unusual reigns over the memory of conventional characteristics.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work