• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

I am going to talk about cognitive processes of memory and how biological factors may affect the onset of Alzheimers disease.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

3. Explain how biological factors affect one cognitive process The mind can be conceptualized as a set of mental processes that are carried out by the brain. Cognition refers to mental processes such as perception, thinking, problem solving, memory, language and attention. Cognition is based on one's mental representations of the world, such as images, concepts and words. Biological factors affect cognitive processes. I am going to talk about cognitive processes of memory and how biological factors may affect the onset of Alzheimer's disease. A distinctly psychological process, memory, is determined to a very great extent by the state of identifiable brain structures like the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and forebrain. Memory is the job of the brain. There are two different models of memory: the multi-store model and the working memory model. The multi-store model of memory was first suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). The model is based on two assumptions: firstly, memory consists of a number of separate stores, and secondly, the memory processes are sequential. The model contains several stores: sensory memory, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). Firstly, information enters into sensory memory through our five senses (iconic, echoic, olfactory, gustatory and haptic) where it will stay for a few seconds and is then lost by decay. A very small part of information enters into STM by selective attention. ...read more.

Middle

The amyloid plaques are formed from the degenerating axons and dendrites and contain a dense core of amyloid-� protein. These plaques accumulate in the spaces between neurons. There is a lot of evidence for the involvement of amyloid-� protein in the onset of AD. In fact, most of the AD patients accumulate amyloid plaques before the onset of disease. Neurofibrillary tangles are caused due to the accumulation of an abnormal form of the tau protein, which have been found in the brains of the AD patients. This protein normally forms part of the support structure of neurons. In Alzheimer's disease, the tau protein is abnormal and as a result, the structural support of neurons collapses. The abnormal protein produces neurofibrillary tangles in which microtubules are twisted around each other. They are found in the cell body and dendrites of neurons. The formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are thought to contribute to the degradation of the neurons in the brain and the subsequent symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. As a result of this degradation, the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, as well as additional areas, suffer from widespread atrophy(shrinking). I am now going to talk about a study done by Hodges et al. (1994). The aim of this study was to determine which parts of memory are affected in Alzheimer's disease and to measure the difference and decline in semantic memory in the patients with Alzheimer's disease to those who do not have the disease.. ...read more.

Conclusion

A field experiment decreases the internal validity. If the internal validity is not high, the conclusions made are not correct interpretation, and the variables defined could not all be accurately and appropriately manipulated and measured in a representative sample. The internal validity of this experiment is decreased by the fact that the experimenter could not measure whether all the caretakers experienced the same level of stress and did not know whether there were other external factors which also created extra stress. The sample was not representative of the whole population. The problem with a purposive sample is that it is often very subjective, however the use of purposive sampling was justified by the researcher by trying to measure the affect on the Alzheimer patients' caretakers health. There were not enough participants to make generalizations. External validity means that research conclusions can be applied to different settings because the sample is representative and the research context has had a controlled and minimal impact on the findings. The external validity is not high as the sample is not representative of whole population. Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. An experimental design is considered reliable if we get the same results repeatedly. The test-retest reliability of this experiment is increased because the results were measured over 8 weeks time. The inter-rater reliability is also increased as more than one experimenter was dealing with the experiment. This discussion of AD demonstrates the close connection between cognitive and biological level of analysis. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Testing the effect of different types of music on memory.

    students playing or talking outside, vehicle noises) Variation between participants (e.g. intelligence, mood, tiredness Cultural background (e.g. asian, non-asian) 1.4.2 TABLE 2: Controlled and Uncontrolled Variables Variable Treatment Controlled Variables Music (type & volume) The music will be rock - ACDC - Back in Black (high dissonance ), jazz -

  2. Psychology Internal Assessment

    Our investigation supports this, as the physical appearance of the person in the sample photograph influenced the participant's choice, and either rated them more positively if they had a symmetrical face, or rated the person in the sample photograph more negatively if they had an unsymmetrical face.

  1. Clive Wearing and HM - Two Evaluations of Brain Function and memory loss.

    participants in studies such as these that their accounts can become subjective HM Clive Wearing Milner saw HM every day for an extremely long period of time and thus her relationship with HM grew on her part, which could affect her opinions and the way in which she conducts her experiments.

  2. The effect and role of organization on memory and recall

    to recall equally, laying forward the view that organization merely could be equivalent to learning. And finally, Bower et al. (1969), upon whose research this report is based, carried out a study whereby one group of participants were presented with words that were organized in a form of an 'associative

  1. Examine the Concepts of Normality & Abnormality

    are genuinely cases of disorder - or as it would have been known in the early 20th century, as "without cause" and "with cause" - was the most important task of a psychiatrist. Over-diagnosis has just as much ill-effect on the patient as under-diagnosis.

  2. Psychology IB Abnormal Notes and Essay Plans

    How about people who are over 2 m 2. How about people who can cook special foods 1. Or some statistically rare (high IQ) is not dysfunctional (nothing wrong) Paragraph 2 1. Subjective psychiatrists 2. Subjective experience of distress is not a reliable indicator of serious psychiatric problems, since patients with schizophrenia can be unaware of their condition 3.

  1. A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah--A Psychological Analysis ...

    This is particularly seen in the way that they dressed. This same theme follows Ishmael into his military identity and then into the rehabilitation center. Ishmael and his friends do not respect anyone that does not ?look? like a soldier.

  2. Examine how one or more factors (biological, cognitive, socio-cultural) influence either one specific anxiety ...

    Some advantages of the methods would be that information can be collected from a large portion of a group. The cognitive approach involves neuroscience, philosophy and psychology, being useful because instead of just measuring external behaviours (a method employed by behaviourists), it measures internal states like memory and mental processes,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work