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IB Psychology Internal Assessment - Learning Perspective

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Introduction

Introduction In observing the school classroom, Bandura's Social Learning Theory was applied. Social Learning Theory was proposed by Bandura and is the theory of learning and development. The theory states that people learn new behavior from one another through reinforcement, imitation, observational learning, or modeling. The general concept or idea of Bandura's Social Learning Theory is that people can learn through observation. - [1977] A study of observational learning by Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1961) can be a great example presenting Bandura's Social Learning Theory. The aim of the study was to demonstrate that learning can occur through mere observation of a model, and that imitation can occur in the absence of that model. Design of the method was a laboratory experiment, in which the independent variable (IV) or types of model were manipulated in three conditions as aggressive, non-aggressive, and controlled condition with no model shown. The dependent variable (DV) was the amount of imitative behavior and aggression shown by the children, which are the levels of aggression shown by the children. Matched pairs of 12 boys and 12 girls were assigned to each condition and were observed for both same and opposite sex models. ...read more.

Middle

The difference in verbal commands was very gradual as it is illustrated in the graph. Voice tone of the teacher was also changing, but negative tone of the voice was twice more than the positive or the nicely speaking tone. Facial expressions were effective to the reactions of the children, so he was diverse in using facial expressions. The teacher of the lower school classroom used some of the body language, but they were not as effective as facial expressions. So he was in control of using body language signs to the children. Eye contact can be included in body language, and the teacher showed a lot of positive eye contacts while speaking or referring to the children. As the result of the teacher's observation, it was demonstrated that he was in full control of getting reactions of imitative behaviors of the children. In this observation, a teacher's behaviors towards children in a lower school classroom were observed, which are very easy to be imitated by children through the teacher being a model to them. Characteristics of the teacher's behaviors were divided into six groups. ...read more.

Conclusion

Bandura (1977) said that the gained information through the study can only be carried on within its indispensability. More trials of the observation can make the results closer to the actual Social Learning Theory of Bandura (1977). For the areas of future study, the importance of attention, one of Bandura's four steps of observational learning, was given out through this research. In the process of attention, the chance of imitative behaviors gets higher as the more attention is given to the model's behaviors in the observation. Therefore, the teacher, who was the model of the observation, was sufficient enough in getting the attention of the children. The children observed the teacher's facial expressions, gestures, and verbalism very carefully, so the study clearly prompted that there is more probability of their imitative behaviors. - Bandura [1977] Conclusion In the observation, the obtained results tend to show that the model was tightly controlled in showing off his behaviors. The children of the researched study reacted almost like as the predicted behaviors. They showed imitation, which is a reflection included in Bandura's Social Learning Theory. As Bandura's Social Learning Theory states, the children have learned new behaviors from the model through imitation, observational learning, and modeling which was the whole purpose of this observation. ...read more.

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