• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24
  25. 25
    25
  26. 26
    26
  27. 27
    27
  28. 28
    28
  29. 29
    29
  30. 30
    30
  31. 31
    31
  32. 32
    32
  33. 33
    33
  34. 34
    34
  35. 35
    35
  36. 36
    36
  37. 37
    37
  38. 38
    38
  39. 39
    39
  40. 40
    40
  41. 41
    41
  42. 42
    42
  43. 43
    43
  44. 44
    44
  45. 45
    45
  46. 46
    46
  47. 47
    47
  48. 48
    48
  49. 49
    49
  50. 50
    50
  51. 51
    51
  52. 52
    52
  53. 53
    53
  54. 54
    54
  55. 55
    55
  56. 56
    56
  57. 57
    57
  58. 58
    58
  59. 59
    59
  60. 60
    60
  61. 61
    61
  62. 62
    62
  63. 63
    63
  64. 64
    64

IB Revision Psych

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

IB HIGHER Level May 2003 Psychology Notes Learning Perspective A. Development and Cultural Contexts Historical Context: A. Very early influence - Aristotle suggested that learning occurs by association between things - French philosopher, Compte, founded positivism, the belief that only definite/positive things are valid (18th Cent.). This became part of the scientific zeitgeist - Jaques Coeb (worked on plant tropisms), was interested in the responses of plants, focusing on stimulus-response relationships. - Cognitive psychologists decided they needed to understand the black box but behaviourists ignored it. B. Other historical conditions (zeitgeist) - Behaviourism emerged in the 1st two decades of the 20th century. - In the early 20th century there was a very positive zeitgeist in USA, shown by the social, educational and intellectual history of the 20th Cent. It came out of the optimistic and materialistic culture of the time. - Development of Behaviourism was in response to psychoanalysis, i.e. Freudian psychology, which dealt with the unconscious repressions, and subconscious. Behaviourism rejected this, thinking it was unscientific. - Psychology born in 1879 when Wundt set up the first psychology labs in Leipzig. C. Watson's reaction against introspection - Watson, an American and father of Behaviourism rejected introspection as unscientific, since it is a subjective method and produces inconclusive results - Introspection is the attempt to understand consciousness and mental processes by asking people to report on their experiences after receiving certain types of stimuli, e.g. sounds, colours and tastes. - John Watson rejected it because he said reports were too subjective - not facts but thoughts. - Watson said: "consciousness has never been seen touched, smelled, tasted or moved. It is a plain assumption just as unprovable as the old concept of the soul" D. The influence of animal psychology - Watson said "Behaviourism is a direct outgrowth of studies in animal behaviour during the 1st decade of the 20th century." 1929. ...read more.

Middle

- To explain the Cocktail Party Effect, a number of models have been proposed. Principles of Auditory Attention - Auditory attention is very difference to visual attention as it has multiple channels as opposed to one, because the ears are stationary and can't be directed. - Most psychologists agree that there must be the same filter function in attention. Broadbent's Filter Theory - Notice the use of an "information processing" approach and the use of a model. Evidence - Cherry's Binaural Tests - Physical stimuli of 2 voices so similar they can't be differentiated. - The more different physical properties, the easier it is to differentiate. - Cherry's dichotic (stereo) tests show it is impossible for someone to listen to two people simultaneously. - Subjects were played two messages, one in each ear, and were asked to repeat aloud one of the messages. - When asked questions about the shadowed story, they could answer them, but when asked about the story that was playing in their other ear, they had very little idea about its content; they could only identify some basic physical properties of the speaker e.g. male, speaking quickly. 4) Emotional Intelligence See CA52 on Emotional Intelligence - The know-how involved in comprehending social situations, first called social intelligence and managing oneself successful. - A critical part of social intelligence and emotional intelligence - ability to perceive, express, understand and regulate emotions also and self-aware. - Manage their emotions well and not overwhelmed by/with depressions, anxiety or anger. - Can delay gratification in favour of long-term rewards rather then being overtaken by immediate impulses. - Can read other's emotions and know what to say to a grieving friend, how to encourage colleagues, and how to manage conflicts well. - Therefore they are often successful in careers, marriages and parenting. Evaluation of Cognitive Perspective --> See CA11 B. Framework See CA35 on Cognitive Perspective - Key Concepts and Linkages Key general concepts (see earlier notes) ...read more.

Conclusion

- The difference between the high and low activity was 30 times. - Active mice would run the length of a football pitch in 6 minutes. - Low Activity mice would sit and quiver in a corner. - The differences were still getting larger at the end of the experiment, which suggests that many genes are involved because all the available alleles would have occurred if there were only two. - See later twins studies for more research into genes. Experimental Testing of Hypotheses See section C1 for details - Biological psychologists have tried to use a scientific, objective and rigorous methodology, thus making psychology even more scientific. Use of both Quantitative and qualitative methods See section C1 - Most people accept both methods are needed for good experiments. - It is impossible to reduce everything to numbers. - Case studies also used. Current Standing - Recent advances in technology e.g. CAT's PET's and MRI scans gives it a very good standing in scientific circles. - More scientific, objective and quantitative. - Very contemporary perspective --> developing rapidly and seems to be providing more and more evidence that many aspects of behaviour have a biological basis. - Now is an emerging branch of psychology called evolutionary psychology and sociobiology. Evolutionary Psychology - The application of Darwinian principles to psychology. - Behavioural features selected for by natural selection in the same way as physical features. - Emphasises the fact that we're just animals and primates and we have a great deal in common with the other three great apes mentally as well as physically. E.g. the way we learn (social learning theory), facial expression are the same as chimps, orang-utans and apes. - We are on an evolutionary continuum with apes. E.g. 1 Sex Differences - Sex differences in humans are biologically based - with males primates larger and stronger than females. - Due to the size differences, the males are more aggressive than females, and dominant. - Male primates have more testosterone (linked with aggression and dominance). E.g. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Testing the effect of different types of music on memory.

    improved spatiotemporal reasoning when school age children in a classroom setting were given paper folding tasks. Another study showing the benefits of background music was a Dutch study in 2006 by deGroot. His study showed that 36 individuals improved learning of foreign languages with background music.

  2. An experiment investigating the effect of background music on students ability to recall a ...

    By undertaking this experiment with the use of another song tests the concept of different auditory stimuli positively affecting memory recall. Thus it will be plausible to determine whether or not there are benefits to listening to music whilst studying.

  1. The effect and role of organization on memory and recall

    For example, they recalled names of the animals together first and then the places and so forth in a certain order. Tulving (1980) claimed that even in the absence of an experimenter imposing organization, subjective organization occurs, whereby the learner organizes the material himself/herself.

  2. Psychology Experiment. The study that is being replicated is the first experiment of J.R. ...

    This was done because school rules prohibited students from being taken out of classes. The results of this experiment can not be generalized to the worldwide population, because although they represented different ethnic backgrounds, it only comes from a specific population of teenage students in the state of New York.

  1. IA stroop effect

    Whereas the mean time for reading words was expected to decline with increased age of the participants, reflecting greater experience in reading, the results for the 12-year-old participants did not follow this trend.

  2. Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour.

    trait theory, thus supporting the trait theory in the condition that an appropriate time frame is adopted. For the method a correlational study was used. A correlational study is used to look for relationships between variables; it is a non-experimental method, as the independent variables are not manipulated.

  1. Outline and evaluate one or more psychological exlpanations for Schizophrenia

    For example, a mother telling her son she loves him yet, at the same time turning away in disgust. It is thought that the child will receive conflicting messages about verbal and non verbal communication and these interactions prevent coherent constructions of reality, and in the long terms manifest itself into Sz symptoms.

  2. Evaluate Social Learning Theory

    Another limitation is that it lacks ecological validity. This is because most studies in this theory are artificial lab experiments, so they may not occur in nature.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work