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Internal Assessment on Stroop Effect

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Introduction

Table of Contents Abstract..........................................................................................................................3 Introduction...................................................................................................................4 Method...........................................................................................................................6 Results.............................................................................................................................8 Discussion.......................................................................................................................10 Conclusion.......................................................................................................................11 References.......................................................................................................................12 Appendices.......................................................................................................................13 Abstract Following the model of John Ridley Stroop's test, this experiment compared the reaction times of reading words off a card and identifying the color they are printed in. The purpose of this investigation was to understand how conflicting stimuli influence the response. I predicted that such a stimulus would hinder the response, which in this case would mean that identifying the colors would take longer than reading the words. This experiment design was under controlled laboratory conditions, where the independent variable was the color card stimulus and the dependent was the reaction time. The participants were a randomly selected group of year 10 students at DIA. The results support the hypothesis, wherein the reaction time for distinguishing colors was in fact greater than simply reading the words. The implication of this to further studies is primarily to do with associations and how such associations alter responses to stimuli. Introduction The cognitive approach of psychology applies the idea of mediation, which is a process or event within the individual which comes between a stimulus and response, when explaining behavior (Glassman and Hadad, 2009). An example of a mediator would be attention, which "is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things" (Attention, 20 Mar 2009). ...read more.

Middle

Procedure This experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions, with each group seated separately and given individual apparatus to use. Once all participants and experimenters were seated, the briefing began. Both the nature of the experiment along with the participant's rights were outlined as clearly as possible, after which the subject was allowed any questions before commencing with the experiment. Each group consisted of two participants, and either one or two experimenters. The experiment was conducted on each subject one at a time. First, the experimenter noted down basic information for each participant, which would not be disclosed to any outside party. The gender, age and nationality of both participants were recorded. The first test was to read the words on the card provided; either participant may go first. Their time taken to read the words is measured and recorded by the experimenter. Next, the same subject is asked to identify (out loud) the color each word is printed in, and this is once again timed by the experimenter. Moving on to the second participant, the same two tests are repeated in exactly the same manner and the data is now recorded for the other subject. After having taken down two pieces of data for each participant, the entire experiment is repeated; test 1 for participant 1 onwards. ...read more.

Conclusion

Kline's ideas were similar however he proved this using a positive relation between associations. For example, if the words were printed in the same color as the text itself, this would probably speed up the process of reading them. This is because we associate the color with what is written, and vice versa. With regard to the Stroop effect, various other factors can be tested in order to see what influences reaction time and what doesn't. For example, instead of investigating different age groups, one could compare nationalities. The most valuable results would come from testing two nationalities, one native English speaking and the other foreign language. Despite my hypothesis having been supported, there were certain limitations to this experiment. Firstly, the sample of 14 and 15 year olds should have been equal in order to form valid comparisons between them. Furthermore, the idea of experimenter bias could cause anomalies in our data. This can be controlled either by having a single experimenter or by closely monitoring all contact between subject and experimenter. Another variable that influenced our results was the nationality and background of each participant; whether or not English is their first language. Conclusion In conclusion, the statistical data helps prove my hypothesis, that distinguishing colors would take longer than reading words. This is due to the fact that the participant is provided with conflicting stimuli for the former, which lengthens the time taken to respond. ...read more.

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